Bibliography: Fulfilled Eschatology Literature, by Century

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Bibliography of works related to fulfilled eschatology from the 16th-21st centuries.   Searchable preterist books listed by century.


Books, Articles, and Papers on the Study of Fulfilled Prophecy

Searchable Preterist Books Listed by Century | Linked to Google Books when able, providing searchable and downloadable text in numerous languages.  If you convert any of these page images to text, please feel free to share with us all.

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21st Century Literature on Fulfilled Eschatology

  • 2000:  Margaret Barker, Revelation of Jesus Christ: Which God Gave to Him to Show to His Servants What Must Soon Take Place (Revelation 1.1) “What more than all else incited them to war was an ambiguous oracle found in their sacred scriptures that at that time one from their country would become ruler of the world. Some understood that this meant Herod, others the crucified wonder worker Jesus, others again Vespasian”Millar, Bonnie (2000) A study of the Siege of Jerusalem in its physical, literary and historical contexts
  • 2000: Bonnie Millar, A study of the Siege of Jerusalem in its physical, literary and historical contexts “The Siege of Jerusalem is a late fourteenth-century poem probably of ‘extreme West Yorkshire provenance’. Scholars here tended to marginalize it, dismissing it as derivative, decadent, unnecessarily violent, precious, anti-Semitic In this first full-length study of the poem Dr Millar challenges traditional interpretations. Not a history, not a religious narrative, more a romance than anything else, The Siege encourages the audience to reconsider the nature of Christian-Jewish relations, the validity of chivalric ideals, the justification for war, etc.”
  • 2000: Anders Nielsen, Until it is Fulfilled: Lukan Eschatology According to Luke 22 and Acts 20 “Nielsen divides his exegetical-theological findings into three main-points. First of all the traditional hypothesis of an imminent expectation of the parousia is seen as problematic, because the eschatology in Luke seems to be less a matter of chronology and more a question of quality. Secondly, some of the sayings in a hellenistic work like Luke-Acts may sometimes be free to express a vertical-transcendent aspect with individual-eschatological associations, while other phases are sufficiently vague to call up in the audience both individual and/or collective-eschatological connotations.”
  • 2001: Mary L. Coloe, God Dwells with Us: Temple Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel  “The image of the Temple speaks of a building, of a place of God’s heavenly presence, and yet the experience of many Christians has been of God’s indwelling in the human heart. In God Dwells with Us, Mary Coloe crosses the centuries through John’s Gospel text and plunges into the experience of the Johannine community. Here, readers receive a sense of God’s indwelling as promised by Jesus, and how it relates to the symbol of the Temple in the gospel narrative. In the years after the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple, the Johannine community looked to the symbol of the Temple as a key means of expressing its new faith in Jesus. “
  • 2001: Jeffrey A. Gibbs, Jerusalem and Parousia: Jesus’ Eschatological Discourse in Matthew’s Gospel “The Eschatological Discourse of Jesus in Matthew 24:1-26:2 is unique by virtue of its concluding position and the summarizing addition of “all” to its transitional formula. In addition, whereas Jesus’ words in the other four major discourses speak in part regarding events beyond the temporal boundaries of Matthew’s Gospel and focus on eschatological events and meaning, this discourse is completely dedicated to “future” events and the proper understanding of those events. “
  • 2001: John W. Marshall, Parables of War: Reading John’s Jewish Apocalypse “The result is a portrait of the Apocalypse of John that envisions the document as deeply invested in the Judaism of its time, pursuing rhetorical objectives that are not defined by the issues that scholars use to differentiate Judaism from Christianity.”
  • 2002: Ovid Need Jr., Death of the Church Victorious “As the book goes deeply in the history of the subject, it has some very original and good concepts. Especially the historical events concerning the 19th century dispensationalism awakening have insight that is really building up to ones thought about the processes.”
  • 2003: T Rajak, Jewish Millenarian Expectations – This is the first book for many years to examine the First Jewish Revolt against Rome – arguably the most decisive event in the history of Judaism and Christianity.
  • 2004: Daniel E Almonz, The Apocalyptic Rapture ExodusAnother example of a combinational approach to preterism is that of conservative preterism. Of the two widely accepted forms of preterism today, the more conservative form admits some Biblical prophecies concerning the literal and physical return of Jesus to this earth are still future. Conservative preterists will perhaps interpret most prophecies about the coming of Jesus symbolicly of Jerusalem’s A.D. 70 desolation. Conservative preterism could be considered a combination of preterism and futurism. The interpretations of the prophecies about the future return of Jesus which are interpreted as being fulfilled in A.D. 70 are preterist, but the other prophecies which are construed to be about a literal future return of the Messiah to earth could be considered futurist.”
  • 2004: Glenn R. Kreider, Jonathan Edwards’s Interpretation of Revelation 4:1-8:1 – David Holwerda notes that “even when a prophecy points to a final future event in the eyes of most interpreters, Calvin usually insists that it is already being fulfilled.. The millennial belief assumes that Christ will reign visibly on the not-yet-renewed earth for a limited period of time. But Calvin believes that the perfected kingdom already exists in Christ, that it is eternal and includes the renovation of the world. Consequently, Christ’s visible appearance can mean only the final revelation of a perfected kingdom.”
  • 2006 ed.: David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation  “David Chilton has done it. He has written a book on Revelation that is sure to spark an eschatological revolution. Going where no commentary has dared to go before, Chilton’s work shuts the mouths of end-times doomsayers with their pessimistic view of the future. David Chilton’s extraordinary verse-by-verse exposition of Revelation is as welcome as a cool drenching rain upon a dry, thirsty ground.”
  • 2006: Jeffrey K. Jue, Heaven Upon Earth: Joseph Mede (1586-1638) and the Legacy of Millenarianism “The sixteenth century marked the increase of the historical-prophetic exegetical method, while the seventeenth century witnessed the dominance of this hermeneutic. Yet within this historicist tradition in England, two competing interpretations arose. The New England pastor, Increase Mather, expressed his opinion of the Dutch scholar Hugo Grotius and his most ardent English supporter Henry Hammond..”
  • 2007: Victoria Clarke, Allies for Armageddon: The Rise of Christian Zionism “Guided by a literal reading of the prophetic sections of the Bible, Christian Zionists are convinced that the world is hurtling toward a final Battle of Armageddon. They believe that war in the Middle East is God’s will for the region. In this timely book, Victoria Clark first explores the 400-year history of this powerful political ideology, laying to rest the idea that Christian Zionism is a passing craze or the province of a lunatic fringe. Then Clark surveys the contemporary Christian Zionist scene in Israel and in the United States, where the influence of the religious fundamentalists has never been greater.”
  • 2007: Van Loomis, Hope for today and tomorrow : G. C. Berkouwer’s doctrines of providence and resurrection with regard to the current topics of the 9/11 terrorism attack on America and the rise of hyper-preterism “This dissertation argues for the hope that is found in G. C. Berkouwer’s doctrines of providence and bodily resurrection in relation to the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, and the rising pervasiveness of the doctrine of hyperpreterism among American Reformed circles. In Part I of the dissertation, Berkouwer’s doctrine of providence is explained and then evaluated and applied. By way of explanation and exposition, Berkouwer’s knowledge of providence is examined, along with his theology of providence in sustenance and government, in relation to miracles, and the dilemma of the existence of God and evil. Following that is an evaluation and application of the doctrine to the 9/11 terrorist attack on America. In Part II, a theological/doctrinal study is undertaken concerning the doctrine of resurrection. Hyper-preterism is examined, along with its leading proponents, and placed into interaction with Berkouwer’s views of the doctrine of the physical resurrection of the body at the eschaton.”
  • 2007: Eugene A. Stovall, The Idumean Covenant: A Novel of the Fall of Jerusalem  “Inexplicably, however, Josephus relates in his Jewish Wars that the insurrectionists against Rome called upon “the Idumeans” for support in  order to prevent the Judean sect of Sadducees from turning Jerusalem  over to the Romans. In addressing this enigma, The Idumean Covenant  becomes a locomotive taking the intelligent reader on a historical adventure of cynical plots, unconventional alliances and impossible loves pitting the most powerful men of the Roman Empire against each other resulting in a dramatic transformation of the existing world order.”
  • 2008: Geoffry Dunn Tertullian’s Aduersus Iudaeos: A Rhetorical Analysis “Tertullian seems to return to the topic at hand, the fulfillment of those events that were prophesied to take place after the Christ had been on earth. One would expect him to have examined the fulfillment of the prophecies about the fall of Jerusalem, yet he did not. Instead he turned his attention to other events that were to take place in the aftermath of the coming of the Christ.. yet only after that did he return to the significance of the fulfillment of the prophecy about the fall of Jerusalem.”
  • 2008: John C. Egerdahl, The Bible Versus Dispensational Eschatology “Finally someone has the courage to dispel the mythology of millenialist, end-times nonsense from the last century. Using scripture only, Rev. Egerdahl dismantles the whole elaborate dispensational man-made theology from Scofield through Lindsay up to today and clearly shows that we don’t have to wait a thousdand years to know the end of His-story.”
  • 2008: James Ellis, The Last Days are Left Behind “Author James Ellis demonstrates end-time truth based logically on solid evidence after a linguistically accurate, biblically consistent, and intellectually honest examination of the Bible’s prophetic passages and verses, the original languages — Hebrew and Greek, the social, cultural, and historical context of Scripture, and the relevance of the audience spoken or written to in God’s Word.”
  • 2008: Gordon L. Isaac, Left Behind Or Left Befuddled: The Subtle Dangers of Popularizing the End Times “The extraordinary success of the Left Behind series by Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins shows that their action/adventure novels have tapped into the American psyche. It has revived our fascination with vivid images of the book of Revelation and other biblical texts: the Antichrist, the mysterious number 666, and people suddenly raptured into the sky by God. But is there something dangerous behind the thinking in these books and how they play out in our world today? In Left Behind or Left Befuddled, Gordon Isaac takes the reader inside the theology behind the series. In clear and accessible prose, Isaac answers many important questions that Christians have about the phenomenon that is Left Behind.”
  • 2008: Scot McKnight, The Letter of James “Because the issues are complex, it is worth our time to examine the use of parousia in the New Testament.. The parousia also meant hope and deliverance for Jesus’ followers. So, parousia here refers to the presence of God/Christ in the destruction of Jerusalem and the deliverance of the church from that destruction. “
  • 2009: Dr. Kelly Nelson Birks, The Daniel Prophecy, A Reformed and Preterist View of the Seventieth Week “Throughout all of our study, we will prove that these events are not future-to-us events. Rather, they are all events that took place in the prophetic past. Namely, that which began with the rebuilding of the Jewish temple, leading to the first coming of Christ and his work on Calvary’s cross and culminating in the destruction of the nation of Israel, the complete abolishment of the Old Covenant and the establishment of the present New Covenant.”
  • 2010: David Malcolm Bennett, The Origins of Left Behind Theology “The Left Behind books by Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins have swept across the Christian world. But what are the origins of such Left Behind ideas as the pretribulation rapture and the sharp distinction between Israel and the Church? The Origins of Left Behind Eschatology begins by investigating the eschatology behind the Left Behind stories, and selects eight teachings which are essential to that way of understanding the End Times. It then searches through the relevant documents produced by the Early Church and many since the Reformation, looking for the origins of each of those eight ideas and when and how they came together in a system.”
  • 2010: Dereck Daschke, City of Ruins: Mourning the Destruction of Jerusalem Through Jewish Apocalypse “This study addresses the way in which a set of texts from the apocalyptic genre reflects and confirms this expectation for certain Jews in the cultures from which these texts derive.” It directly relates the loss of Jerusalem and its Temple—first to the Babylonians, then again six centuries later to the Romans—to a psychoanalytic model of mourning.”
  • 2010: Kurt Simmons:, The Twilight of Postmillennialism, “In this small volume the authors  completely undo Postmillennialism and its doctrines of “material new  creation,” “Resurrection of the Flesh” and other astonishing errors.” In his book, When Shall These Things Be?, Mathison concedes, “As far as Paul knew, Christ could have returned in his lifetime” (p. 194). If Christ could have returned within Paul’s lifetime, how could there have been enough time for an enormous millennium culminating in the messianic kingdom filling the whole earth? If you find this tremendous inconsistency disturbing,”
  • 2011: Warren Johnston, Revelation Restored: The Apocalypse in later Seventeenth-Century England
  • 2011: John Noe, The Perfect Ending for the World “‘End-of-the-world’ ranting and ravings are, once again, parading across our paths. All humankind has and is paying a horrendous price for their ages-old trail of failed predictions. Nonetheless, many are wondering if this time could really be it. And the answer is, NO! In this book you will discover why and how the God of divine perfection in the creation of the physical earth and cosmos is also the same God of divine perfection in the creation and fulfillment of his plan of redemption. That means the world He created is without end and “the end” the Bible consistently proclaims for the world came right on time; it’s behind us not ahead of us; its “last days” are past not present or future. “
  • 2011: Ken Jones, Jewish Reactions to the Destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70
    Apocalypses and Related Pseudepigrapha “The Roman destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 was a watershed event in the religious, political, and social life of first-century Jews. This book explores the reaction to this event found in Jewish apocalypses and related literature preserved among the Pseudepigrapha (4 Ezra, 2 Baruch, 3 Baruch, 4 Baruch, Sibylline Oracles 4 and 5, and the Apocalypse of Abraham). While keeping the historical context of their composition in mind, the author analyzes the texts with a view to answering the following questions: What do these texts tell us about Jewish attitudes toward the Roman Empire? How did Jews understand the situation in post-70 Judea through the lens of Israel s past, especially the Babylonian sack of Jerusalem in 587 B.C.?”
  • 2011: Mladen Popovic, The Jewish Revolt Against Rome: An Interdisciplinary Study “The Jewish revolt against Rome in the first century C.E. provides ancient historians the opportunity to study one of the best-documented provincial revolts in the early Roman Empire. This volume brings together different disciplines, some for the first time. The contributors draw from a wide range of literary, archaeological, documentary, epigraphic and numismatic sources. The focus is on historiographical and methodological reflections on our sources, their nature and the sort of historical questions they allow us to answer. This volume combines fields of research that should not be pursued in isolation from each other if we wish to further our understanding of the Jewish revolt’s historical context.”
  • 2011: Matthew Zolezzi Romero, Numismatics, Meteorology, and the Apocalypse “Revelation 13:15-17 describes a situation in which economic transactions were disrupted for Jews and Jewish Christians living in Palestine and Asia Minor, resulting in an economic crisis. This crisis found its roots in events prior to the destruction of the temple in 70 C.E., specifically to a series of numismatic reforms initiated by Nero. The author of Revelation, most likely a Jewish Christian, was describing the use of coins in Palestine and Asia Minor rather than prophesying future eschatological calamity.”
  • 2011: Daniel R. Schwartz, Was 70 CE a Watershed in Jewish History?: On Jews and Judaism Before and After the Destruction of the Second Temple The destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE, which put an end to sacrificial worship in Israel, is usually assumed to constitute a major caesura in Jewish history. But how important was it? What really changed due to 70? What, in contrast, was already changing before 70 or remained basically or virtually — unchanged despite it? How do the Diaspora, which was long used to Temple-less Judaism, and early Christianity, which was born around the same time, fit in? This Scholion Library volume presents twenty papers given at an international conference in Jerusalem in which scholars assessed the significance of 70 for their respective fields of specialization, including Jewish liturgy, law, literature, magic, art, institutional history, and early Christianity.
  • 2013 ed.: Dale C. Allison Jr., The End of the Ages Has Come “No satisfactory explanation of the “realized eschatology” of the early church has been offered”
  • 2013 ed.: The Annotated Parousia for Kindle: The Classic Study of New Testament Doctrine Regarding Christ’s Second Coming J. Stuart Russell (Author), Randall S. Newton (Editor), Stan Newton (Foreword), Yvette Hill (Illustrator), Todd D. Dennis (Introduction)
  • 2015: David Dean: Christian Zionism and the Scofield Reference Bible: A Critical Evaluation of Dispensational Theology “The author has purposed in the writing of Christian Zionism and the Scofield Reference Bible to provide an objective analysis of the multiple doctrinal as well as prophetic issues raised in the extensive notes and commentaries included with the scripture text of the various and changing printings of the Scofield Reference Bible. Through an objective examination of this work of Cyrus Scofield and his editorial committee, many obvious conflicts and contradictions are revealed when compared with what the scriptures actually say.”
  • 2015:  Beatrice Groves, The Destruction of Jerusalem in Early Modern English Literature “This book explores the fall of Jerusalem and restores to its rightful place one of the key explanatory tropes of early modern English culture. Showing the importance of Jerusalem’s destruction in sermons, ballads, puppet shows and provincial drama of the period, Beatrice Groves brings a new perspective to works by canonical authors such as Marlowe, Nashe, Shakespeare, Dekker and Milton.”
  • 2015: David Dean: Christian Zionism and the Scofield Reference Bible: A Critical Evaluation of Dispensational Theology “The author has purposed in the writing of Christian Zionism and the Scofield Reference Bible to provide an objective analysis of the multiple doctrinal as well as prophetic issues raised in the extensive notes and commentaries included with the scripture text of the various and changing printings of the Scofield Reference Bible. Through an objective examination of this work of Cyrus Scofield and his editorial committee, many obvious conflicts and contradictions are revealed when compared with what the scriptures actually say.”
  • 2016: Ken Gentry: Have We Missed The Second Coming? (New Book) “Perhaps the title of this book intrigues you: Have We Missed the Second Coming? But if you are in an evangelical church a real possibility exists that you might soon experience a new doctrine invading your church and disrupting its peace.

    The hyper-preterist movement teaches that Jesus’ second coming occurred in the first century when the Jewish temple was destroyed in AD 70. And that the great resurrection occurred at the same time. And that the resurrection body is spiritual rather than physical. And that the judgment of men occurred in AD 70 as well. And many other errors are gradually developing as it “integrates downward into the void” (to use an apt Van Til phrase).

    Hyper-preterism is a new theological construct in evangelical circles. It has developed a rather enthusiastic and combative body of followers. What they lack in numbers, they more than make up for in noise.”


20th Century Literature on Fulfilled Eschatology

  • 1907: James Alan Montgomery, The Samaritans, the earliest Jewish sect: their history, theology and literature “The resuscitation of the district of Samaria came with the strong arm of Roman force..The ancient rivalry was still maintained, and when Jews and Samaritans met on country road it blazed out in acts of violence.. the political value of Samaria was appreciated by Rome, and especially by Herod.. it offered a foothold against the turbulence of the Jews; its majority of pagan citizens despised the Jews”
  • 1917: Walter Roy Goff, The handbook of eschatology, or, A consistent Biblical view of the Lord’s return “It is true that certain passages like John 12:48, and II Pet. 3:7, 10-12, taken alone, might appear to uphold the belief that the judgment day is the last day of time; but taken with other Scriptures heretofore used in these pages, and recognizing the fact that one of these passages just mentioned is in figurative language, and the other does not say “the last day of time,” it is easy to harmonize the apparent leaning to agree with plain and definite words in almost every New Testament book that the Lord was “at hand,” the time of His Coming, “quickly,” and the like.”
  • 1918: Philip Mauro, Dr. Shailer Mathews on Christ’s Return: An Examination of His Pamphlet Will Christ Come Again?
  • 1918: R.A. Torrey, Will Christ Come Again?: An Exposure of the Foolishness, Fallacies, and Falsehoods of Shailer Mathews “Does any one believe for a moment that there are 285 places that indicate that Jesus would return during the lifetime of their generation?”
  • 1929: Ned Bernard Stonehouse, The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church: A Study in the History of the New Testament Canon
  • 1936: Samuel Hinds Wilkinson, The Israel promises and their fulfillment: an examination of the pronouncements found in the book entitled “The hope of Israel: what is it?” by Philip Mauro
  • 1970: Lloyd Gaston, No Stone Upon Another: Studies in the Significance of the Fall of Jerusalem in the Synoptic Gospels
  • 1972: Bo Reicke, Synoptic Prophecies on the Destruction of Jerusalem
  • 1975: David Brady, The Contribution of British Writers Between 1560 and 1830 to the Interpretation of Revelation 13.16-18: (the Number of the Beast) Henry Hammond and the Preterist School of Interpretation / “It was in 1653 that “the father of English Biblical criticism,” Henry Hammond, published what was to be the first British exposition of the Book of Revelation along thoroughly preterist lines.”
  • 1978: F.F. Bruce, The Time is Fulfilled, A Shadow of Good Things to Come “The elaborately detailed prescription of the tabernacle services and furnishings in Exodus constituted an object lesson showing that ‘the way into the sanctuary was not yet open while the first tabernacle retained its status.’ The shadow, then is very defective as compared with the ‘very image’ or substance of man’s relation to God.”
  • 1985: Dale C. Allison Jr. , End of the Ages Has Come: Early Interpretation of the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus  “How does one explain the New Testament texts that seem to announce the imminent arrival of the long-awaited Day of the Lord? In this study, Dale Allison presents a comprehensive analysis of the first-century beliefs about the period of suffering and tribulation which was to precede the general resurrection of the dead. Although such beliefs were not uncommon, they have received little attention from New Testament scholars. Dr. Allison argues that they provided the conceptual tools that allowed New Testament writers to make sense of the death and resurrection of Jesus, without abandoning altogether Jesus’ own messianic expectations and belief in some imminent radical change.”
  • 1985: C. Homer Giblin, The Destruction of Jerusalem According to Luke’s Gospel: A Historical-typological Moral “The topic entails another mode of interpreting Luke’s Gospel, complementing other accepted modes (apologetic, pastoral-horatory, doctrinal) and aptly describing described as “historical-typological.” This further mode is grounded in the preface to Luke’s presentation of his gospel as kind of history. It respects the narrative progression of Luke’s Gospel including some attention to the way in which he conditions his types audience to reflect upon and personally to apply the intended lesson. The fate of Jerusalem is brought about by two major facts. First, the people are insensitive to the terms for peace. Although they are ostensibly favorable to Jesus’ teaching (as “Impressed unbelievers have been hitherto, and are warned rather than condemned, they will, as a matter of historical reality, perish for the more serious sins of others. Second, the rulers of the people (the Romans not excepted, but not considered as primarily responsible) have committed injustice and thus bring about the ruin of the people. The fate of Jerusalem, however, is not ultimately weighed as an event in itself, it is a sign for others, and is expressly related to time for (judgment of) nations. All this proves to be relevant, parabolically, to Luke’s readership, a man of affluence and influence, educated, who is expected to perceive in “a history” what should be done and what should be avoided, to discern models of good and of evil, with their consequences for society as he knows it. In effect, Luke’s lesson apropos of his account of Jerusalem’s destruction is to be construed as a question prompted in the typed reader’s mind: If this is what happened to Jerusalem because of the way Jesus and those who represent him, his disciples, were treated, what will happen to my city/nation/society if he (and his followers, who stand for him) are treated similarly? What am I, as a respected man with some influence, expected to do?” 
  • 1988: Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology “After the prediction of the destruction of Jerusalem, another trio of texts, Matthew 24, 29-31; Mark 13,24-27 and Luke 21,25-28 — speak of the Son of Man’s return. So far as our problem is concerned, it is extremely important to note how these two aspects — the imminent destruction of Jerusalem and the Parousia — are temporally related… The fall of Jerusalem is not the end of the world but the start of a new age in salvation history.”
  • 1988: Richard White, Preterism And The Orthodox Doctrine Of Christ’s Parousia: A Constructive Critique Of M.R. King 
  • 1990 ed.: F.F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews “But now the time of reformation has arrived; what used to be “the good things to come” are now “the good things that have come”  (RSV), “the good things already in being” (NEB).  “For Christ has appeared, and in him the shadows have given way to the perfect and abiding reality.   And his appearance is properly announced with a triumphant trumpet-flourish; his entrance into the presence of God is not a day of soul-affliction and fast, like the Day of Atonement under the old legislation, but a day of gladness and son, the day when Christians celebrate the accession of their Priest-King.”
  • 1990: Seth Schwartz, Josephus and Judean Politics “Because of Josephus’ tendency to report the same events in different works, we can check his accounts of himself, detect and discount his apologetic concerns, and produce a sketch of his life at the time of his literary career, from about 70 to about 100”
  • 1994: Hugo Grotius, Theologian, Between Grotius and Cocceius: The ‘Theologia Prophetica’ of Campegius Vitringa (1659-1722), Classic theological writing on the spectrum of approaches to Bible prophecy. (Hugo Grotius, first generation Modern Preterist)
  • 1998: Robert L. Thomas, Theonomy and the Dating of Revelation “Two major flaws mar Gentry’s discussion of John’s temporal expectation in writing the book. Besides these problems, five major questions regarding Gentry’s position remain unanswered.”
  • 1999: James D. Snyder, All God’s Children: How the First Christians Challenged the Roman World and Shaped the Next 2000 Years : an Historical Novel “The years AD. 31-71 were among the most turbulent in human history, and All God’s Children is the most complete account ever assembled of how the Christians and Jews challenged the Roman world — and why the degeneracy of their political overlords paved the way. All God’s Children is a factual history, but one using a fictitious narrator and the historical novel genre in order to reach beyond scholars to a mass audience. “
  • 1999: T.L. Frazier, A Second Look at the Second Coming: Sorting Through the Speculation “Read a balanced, well-researched treatment of the end times, interpreted from the Christian East by faithful Orthodox saints, martyrs and Spirit-filled Fathers of the Faith.Historic Christian teaching on the rapture, the millenium, the state of Israel and the role of the Church in the last days is something quite different from what is commonly taught in the pop religion of today’s evangelicalism. “


19th Century Literature on Fulfilled Eschatology

  • 1808:  N.A. Nisbett, The mysterious language of st. Paul, in his description of the man of sin “Man of Sin” is the Jewish Nation “destroyed by the brightness of the coming in the destruction of Jerusalem.”
  • 1809: John Butt, The Divinity of the Apocalypse Demonstrated by its Fulfillment “Vespasian, the Father of Titus, came from the East; and to him Josephus applied the prophecies, relating to the Messiah on that account; He deputed the management of the Jewish war to his son Titus, who was called the delight of Mankind’. Mr. Stackhouse, describing the triumph of Titus, without any reference to prophecy, uses this remarkable expression: “This was the first time that ever saw the ‘Father and Son triumph together.”
  • 1811:  William Bengo Collyer, Lectures on Scripture Prophecy
  • 1812: Timothy Metcalf, Observations on certain passages of the Old Testament, cited in the historical book of the New Testament, as prophecies  “I do not know that any commentator has before given the true sense of the caution contained in these words. And if it has lain hid since the time of the completion of the prophecy, we cannot but be more forcibly struck with the prophecy itself; now that the true sense of it is at length made out. And as this prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem was, so exactly fulfilled; so we, need not doubt, that the; second coming of our Lord took place immediately after the tribulation of those days”
  • 1812: Nehemiah Nisbett, Letter illustrative of the Gospel hsitory, and of the Epistles “it has been boldly asserted, in the Theological Repository, under the direction of the late Dr. Priestley, and never, that I know of, attempted to be contradicted, in any part of his numerous works, that our Lord is recorded by his historians Matthew, Mark and Luke, to have declared that his second earning was one of those events which would happen during the lives of some of his contemporaries. “
  • 1813: Ami Bost, Theological theses of Christ’s prophecies about the destruction of Jerusalem // Latin, Theses theologicae de Christi vaticiniis erga Hierosolymae excidium
  • 1816: George Wilkins, The history of the destruction of Jerusalem, as connected with the Scripture prophecies “The prophecy of our Saviour,” As the lightning cometh out of the east,  and shineth even unto the west, so also shall the coming of the son of  man be,” as it relates to the destruction of Jerusalem, was also  fulfilled: ” for,” says Bishop Pearce, ” the Roman army entered into  Judea on the east side of it, and carried on their conquests westward,  as if not only the extensiveness of the ruin, but the very route which  the army should take, was intended in the comparison of the lightning  coming out of the east, and shining unto the west.”
  • 1818: Thomas Hartwell Horne An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures “A consideration of events recorded in history will very frequently show how far and in what sense any expression is to be understood figuratively. Thus many and various things are said relative to the coming of Christ, his kingdom, government, and adversaries. Now history informs us, that he came, at the destruction of Jerusalem, to rule and govern far and wide by the spreading of the Gospel.”
  • 1823: John Samuel Thompson Prophecy Fulfilled Or Destruction of Jerusalem and Dispersion of the Jewish People at the Second Coming of Christ: Delineated in a Discourse from 2 Thess. I. 6,10 “This prophecy fixes the time of Christ’s coming before the destruction of the second temple, which by the Romans under Vespasian, was levelled with the ground.”
  • 1825: Thomas Brown, Joseph Priestley, David Levi, The History of the Destruction of the City and Temple of Jerusalem, and of the Ruin and Dispersion of the Jewish Nation “Shewing, (more clearly than has probably ever been done before,) how exactly the Predictions of Jesus Christ.. have been fulfilled”
  • 1825: Flavius Josephus adapt., The history of the siege and destruction of Jerusalem : Collected from Josephus and other historians — with numerous illustrations.
  • 1830: Samuel Lee, Six Sermons on the Scriptures: with an original exposition of the Book of Revelation; shewing that the whole of that remarkable prophecy has long ago been fulfilled
  • 1831: Edward Irving, Review of  Preterist Book by Samuel Lee, D.D. “Six Sermons on the Scriptures: with an original exposition of the Book of Revelation; shewing that the whole of that remarkable prophecy has long ago been fulfilled” (1830)
  • 1831: J.W.H., Apocalypse “The opinion, that the book of Revelation refers to the Jewish church and polity, and was all fulfilled in the apostolic age, appears to be gaining ground in our denomination. But we should not hastily embrace any new theory without carefully examining its various parts, and comparing them with the sacred text. In avoiding the errors and extremes of Orthodoxy, there is a danger that we run into the extremes of Heterodoxy.”
  • 1832: John R. Park, An amicable controversy with a Jewish rabbi, on the Messiah’s coming, with an exposition of Zechariah on the Messiah’s kingdom “The abrogation of the law, and the promulgation of the Gospel, are foreshewn under the types of the Old and the New Jerusalem; which symbolically signify the Old and New Covenant, the one abolished and the other established, in reality at the coming of Christ, but ostensibly at the destruction of the city and temple, which is probably on this account employed symbolically, to represent the spiritual change.”
  • 1834: “Destruction of the Temple Foretold”, A Comprehensive Commentary on Matthew 24, with practical observations
  • 1834: John Park,  A new exposition of the Apocalypse, so far as the prophecies are fulfilled ; to which are prefixed the history of Christianity epitomised
  • 1835: James Macknight, A New Literal Translation, from the Original Greek of All the Apostolical Epistles “Young children, be not terrified by the rage of the unbelieving Jews: It the last hour of the Jewish commonwealth. And as ye have heard that the antichrist, who denieth the appearing of Christ in the flesh cometh before the destruction of Jerusalem, so now there are many such antichrists; from which we know that it is the last hour of the Jewish state.”
  • 1837: George Campbell, The Four Gospels, Translated from Greek “By abomination, nothing is more commonly understood, in the language of the Scripture, than idols of every kind. It is here generally, and I think justly, supposed to refer to the Roman standards to be erected around the city, which it would be besieged by Titus Vespasian.”
  • 1838: James Farquharson, A new illustration of the latter part of Daniel’s last vision and prophecy “The most approved commentators of modern times have applied much of the latter part to events, that have occurred since the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, and the last chapter to the general resurrection from the dead ; whereas the quotation from it, by Christ, obviously directs us to look for the fulfilment of the whole, in events that occurred at, or antecedently to, that destruction. “
  • 1839: Joseph Stevens Buckminster, Our Savior’s Prophecy of the Destruction of Jerusalem “If it be really true, that a circumstantial prophecy was delivered by our Savior at the time and in the manner which the evangelists have declared, nothing more is wanting to establish the truth of his religion. If they believe not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.”
  • 1839: Henry Fitz vs. “Dr. Adam Clarke, the celebrated Arminian commentator” on “The Grand Consummation” “I wish the reader to notice, and to remember, that these things, viz:—The destruction of Jerusalem, &c., which actually happened about forty-three years after Jesus affirmed of his coming, are the things that should take place in this world, when “he should come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and THEN he shall reward every man according to his works.” Is there an honest man living, who dares affirm positively, as his firm belief and conviction, that the declaration of Jesus Christ, to his disciples as narrated by Matthew in the 16th chapter of his Gospel, of his coming in the glory of his Father with his angels, when he should reward every man according to his works, contradicts his declaration in Matt. xxiv. 34, “Verily I say unto you, This Generation shall not pass till all these things be fulfilled ?” and, also, speaks of a different coming, of the Son of man, from the coming spoken of in Matt. xxv. 31, as expressed in the phrase, “When the Son of man shall come in his glory,” &c.?
  • 1840: Abel Charles Thomas, Analysis and Confutation of William Miller’s Theory on the End of the World “Why, indeed, should the destruction of Jerusalem be regarded as of such immense moment, that Christ and his apostles should be continually speaking of it, especially when we consider the nature, and object, and solemn importance of the cause in which they were engaged?”
  • 1841: Henry Highton, Essays towards a right interpretation of the last prophecy of our Lord concerning the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the present world “Perhaps it is the misunderstanding of this word which has been one of the great causes of the misunderstanding of the prophecy; leading men to suppose, that all the things here spoken of must have been fulfilled in some sense or other at the desolation of Jerusalem; but as they plainly all the while saw that they had not been so” / “In all the prophets of the Old Testament, in fulfillment of whose prophecies our Lord expressly declares, Jerusalem was to be trodden down by the Romans, we find the time of tribulation spoken of as lasting as long as Jerusalem was left desolate.”
  • 1843: Samuel Lee, Eusebius, On the Theophany Lost book from early church father discovered and translated into English for the first time | “EVER since his translation of Eusebius’s ‘Theophania,’ my father’s mind had been more or less occupied on the subject of Prophecy, and he became convinced that the views which he entertained, known as the Preterist, were those held by the early Church. The subject was one of absorbing interest to him during the few last years of his life, and as a child I can remember the animated conversations between him and my mother…”
  • 1844: The Biblical Inquirer “There are perhaps few subjects, on which greater misconceptions have arisen, for want of due inquiry into the original meaning and usage of their peculiar terms and phrases, than on that of the second coming of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. Much indeed has been lately done towards removing these misconceptions by Professor Lee in the Dissertations subjoined to his Six Sermons, by Mr. Stark in his Diagram, and by Mr. Wilkinson in his Pamphlet on “The Last Days;” but, as the subject is still pressed with some difficulties, the present brief attempt is made in the hope of exciting more attention to it.”
  • 1845: Charles Maitland, The Apostles’ School of Prophetic Interpretation: with Its History Down to the Present Time “Sect. IV. —The Praeterist Theories. When a man starts with the assertion that these prophecies were fulfilled in the first ages of Christianity, he is met by this difficulty: that the prophecies were not found sufficiently plain to enable the Church to recognise their fulfilment until some fifteen centuries afterwards. But where lies the fault? in the obscurity of the predictions, or in the dulness of the Church? It is the business of the Praeterist to vindicate the Scripture, and to leave the entire blame with the Church. He is bound to point out in history some fulfilment, so obvious as to show that the believers of that age might fairly have suspected it to be a fulfilment. But, far from this, scarcely two Praterists have as yet agreed about even the outline of their supposed fulfilments.  Though Alcassar was the first to apply the Praeterist principle to the Apocalypse, the rest of the prophecies had been so treated one hundred years before.

  • 1845: Moses Stuart, A Commentary on the Apocalypse
  • 1847: John Humphrey Noyes, The Berean: A Manual for the Help of Those who Seek the Faith of the Primitive Church
  • 1850: Samuel Lee, Six Sermons on the Study of the Holy Scriptures: Their Nature, Interpretation, and Some of Their Most Important Doctrines ; Preached Before the University of Cambridge, in the Years 1827-8. To which are Annexed Two Dissertations: the First on the Reasonableness of the Orthodox Views of Christianity, as Opposed to the Rationalism of Germany; the Second on the Interpretation of Prophecy Generally, with an Original Exposition of the Book of Revelation; Shewing that the Whole of that Remarkable Prophecy Has Long Ago Been Fulfilled Dr. Samuel Lee rendered the “head/heel” of Gen. 3:15 as adjectives: “He shall break thee capitally, though thou break him partially.” (1830)
  • 1850:  All Prophecy Fulfilled; as shown by our Lord, in his Discourse to his Disciples, recorded in Matt, xxiv., xxv. ; Mark xiii. ; Luke xxi “From which he draws the conclusion, — that all the predictions contained in those chapters have long since been fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem and its concomitant events, which includes even the second coming of Christ.”
  • 1851: James Armstrong, An Exposition of the Fulfilled Prophecies of the Apocalypse, from The First Seal to the End of Chapter XIX “If, then, the time and the scope of the interwoven prophecies can be determined, the scope and time of the visions with which they are combined will likewise be ascertained; for both sets of predictions coming from the same Author, being fulfilled in the same period of time, bearing testimony to the same Person, and being expressed in the same language or imagery, will necessarily have their accomplishment in the same events.”
  • 1851: Francis John Bodfield Hooper, Palmoni: An Essay of the Chronological and Numerical Systems in Use Among the Ancient Jews  A very detailed chronological calculation regarding the dates of key events in the Jewish Rebellion and prophetic passages of Scripture.
  • 1853: William MacDermott, History of Rome, from its earliest period to the death of Vespasian“A.D., 70. Vespasian was now proclaimed emperor..this war he now transferred to his son Titus..mysterious phenomena were seen..the supernatural warning which the priests heard in the temple (21st May, A.D., 65) “Let us depart hence!” announcing to the very ministers of the religion, that the Spirit of God had now abandoned them and their temple for ever.”
  • 1853 ed.: John Owen, A Second Consideration of the Annotations of Grotius “prefatory note) “Owen, in the preface to his treatise on the “Perseverance of the Saints,” had alluded to Dr. Hammond as indebted to Grotius for more than one rare notion.”
  • 1860: George Hebert, Nebuchadnezzar’s Vision of the Great Image. A latter-day prophecy “But truly this principle of symbolically interpreting Divine prophecy is fraught with evils most serious and practical ; for, firstly, it opens up the flood-gates of imagination, fanaticism, and prejudice, by enabling persons to invent and insist on theories of interpretation, as numerous as they are contradictory, deluging the press with publications which prove little but the incapacity, presumption, and too often, we fear, the interested designs, of their authors. We speak not of those works of the Praeterist School which have become, and justly so, from the research, learning, and pure evangelical truth displayed in them, part of the standard theological literature of the age, but of those ephemeral productions, which are manifest adaptations to public prejudices, conducive to fanaticism, and not infrequently vehicles for the propagation of heresy, radicalism, and dissent”
  • 1861: John Kitto, Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, Vol. XII “Our Saviour himself had predicted a coming of his, which was to take place during the lifetime of those who listened to his prediction. See Matt. xvi. 28. It has generally been supposed that this relates to an invisible or spiritual coming which was to be manifested in the display of power for the establishment of his kingdom, or a coming in the spirit and power of his religion in the minds of men.”
  • 1862: John Kitto, Quarterly journal of prophecy, Vol. XIVBunsen and Wordsworth on the Date of the Apocalypse
  • 1865: Richard Cunningham Shimeall, Christ’s Second Coming: … scripturally, historically and philosophically “Are we to suppose that our Lord did not know what were the ideas of the disciples as to the nature of His coming? If, then, He spake of a figurative coming, while they were expecting Him to come personally, is it not natural to conclude that He would at once have corrected their error”
  • 1866: Henry Milman, History of Christianity from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Empire “Of all those prophets, Elijah was held in the most profound reverence by the descendants of Israel. (Lightfoot, Harmony of Evang. iv. 399) In that day when the Lord shall deliver Israel, three days before the coming of the Messiah, Elias shall come, and shall stand on the mountains of Israel mourning and wailing concerning them, and saying..”
  • 1867: W.P.G., The Lord the Spirit. Shewing the Error of Expecting Any Second Personal Coming of Christ
  • 1868: James Murray of Torquay, The Force of the Chronological Interpretation of Prophecy, Viewed in the Light of Apostolic Facts, and of the True Genius of Christianity, Relating to the End of the World, and the Coming of the Son of Man. An Answer to the Chronological Weakness of Prophetic Interpretation, by a Beneficed Clergyman of the Church of England
  • 1870: Madame Antonietta De La Grange, The Last Days of Jerusalem “Vainly did Titus give orders to extinguish the fire; no one listened to them.”
  • 1870: T. Nelson, The fall of Jerusalem; and the Roman conquest of Judæa “And thus there arose a close moral connection between the fall of the great Jewish city and the death of Christ. Both events originated in the same causes and tended to the same end. The destruction of Jerusalem was a stage in the development of the faith which Christ came to reveal to mankind. And it was the same national temperament which prevented them “from knowing the things belonging to their peace,” that committed them in their ruinous and deadly struggle with the masters of the world. “
  • 1871: R.W. Dale, The Jewish Temple and the Christian Church “The end of all things is at hand.” “His voice then shook the earth, but now hath He promised, saying, yet once more I shake not the earth only but also heaven.” In His last revelation to mankind, God’s purposes are reaching perfect accomplishment. Empires which had overshadowed the whole earth had decayed and perished. The institutions and laws which God Himself had originally established, the temple He had consecrated, the priests He had anointed, were now ready to vanish away.”
  • 1872: T. M. Hopkins, Second Adventism in the Light of Jewish History “The following Treatise takes the ground that the Second Advent or Coming of Christ is an event which transpired over 1700 years ago. How far the writer has succeeded in sustaining that position the reader can judge when he has duly considered the facts adduced in support of it.”
  • 1873: Ernest Renan, Antichrist: Including the Period from the Arrival of Paul in Rome to the End of the Jewish Revolution “The period covered by the present volume is, after the three or four years of the public life of Jesus, the most extraordinary in the entire development of Christianity. Here, by a singular touch of the great unconscious Artist who appears to rule in the seeming caprice of historic evolution, we shall see Jesus and Nero — Christ and Antichrist — set, as it were, in contrast, face to face, like heaven and hell. “
  • 1878: Hermann Gebhardt, The Doctrine of the Apocalypse: And Its Relation to the Doctrine of the Gospel and Epistles of John  “it was written “in this year,” as it sometimes stands on the title-page of pamphlets written at the period of the Reformation. But this year is so clearly indicated by the description of the Beast, in complete agreement with everything else in the book, that, as we shall show in the sections on nearer doctrines, the choice can only be, whether it was written under the government of Galba, between August 68 and January 69, or in the time from the accession of Vespasian to the destruction of Jerusalem, between the end of December 69 and the spring of the year 70. And as in the same sections we find nothing in favour of Vespasian, but on the contrary very important considerations in favour of the time of Galba, we conclude, with Volkmar and others, that the Apocalypse was written in his reign, toward the end of the year 68, or early in the year following.”
  • 1878: James Stuart Russell, The Parousia: A Critical Inquiry Into the New Testament Doctrine of Our Lord’s Second Coming
  • 1882: Bourchier Wrey Savile, Fulfilled Prophecy, in Proof of the Truth of Scripture “How pathetic the lament which Christ uttered over the doomed city of Zion, then probably at the culminating point of its earthly grandeur, but which the divine mind foresaw within a very few years would be so entirely destroyed, that the prophecy delivered eight centuries before—”Zion should be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem become heaps”—would be literally and exactly fulfilled..”
  • 1880: Nathaniel Starkey, To the Preterists “The position I take as a Futurist has not been, so far as I am aware, assailed, and because I deem it impregnable, I shall be glad if some preterist will disclose to me, its weak point, if it has one.” / A Reply
  • 1883: James Kelly, Apocalyptic Interpretation “Is the Apocalypse fulfilled or unfulfilled?”
  • 1883: Abraham Kuenen, The Religion of Israel to the Fall of the Jewish State “each of the three great eras in the history of Israel is marked by the violent destruction of the existing form of an external Sanctuary which had endured for centuries ; as if to indicate plainly that this history is after all rather that of a religion than of a nation. ..and so the destruction of the visible Sanctuary which had served both as veil and as sign of that inner life. “
  • 1884: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Philosophical and Theological Opinions “That the poetic — and I see no reason for doubting the real — date of the Apocalypse is under Vespasian, is so evidently implied in the five kings preceding (for Galba, Otho, and Vitellus, were abortive emperors) that is seems to me quite lawless to deny it.
  • 1888: G.A. Henty For the Temple: A Tale of the Fall of Jerusalem “In all history there is no drama of more terrible interest than that which terminated with the total destruction of Jerusalem. Had the whole Jewish nation joined in the desperate resistance made by a section of it to the overwhelming strength of Rome, the world would have had no record of truer patriotism than that displayed by this small people in their resistance to the forces of the mistress of the world. Unhappily the reverse of this was the case.”
  • 1889: Frédéric Louis Godet, A Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke “It has been supposed that the description of the Parousia, Matt. xxiv, refers exclusively to the invisible return of Jesus to destroy Jerusalem. This explanation is incompatible with the text.. It has also been alleged that in the prophetic perspective the final coming of the Messiah appeared to the view of Jesus as in immediate connection with His return to judge Israel.”
  • 1893: Thomas Scott, The Visions of the Apocalypse and Their Lessons “The Praeterists—who think that the events with which the visions were concerned are altogether fulfilled, having taken place in the first centuries of Church history—are very numerous. And at present one section of the School—those who think that the book is concerned almost entirely with contemporaneous history—is very vigorously supported by Archdeacon Farrar. He thinks that the crash, and the coming of the Lord, to which the visions all point, refer to the Lord’s coming at the destruction of Jerusalem, and the breaking up of the entire Jewish polity. Others of this School allow a more extended scope for the visions, and refer the predicted crash to the breaking down of heathenism before Christianity, or to the breaking up of the Roman empire. But many of the most thoughtful of the Praeterists admit (or strongly advocate) that the visions and these events have lessons for all ages, and look forward as well as back. Thus there are commentators—such as Isaac Williams, Maurice, Hengstenberg, Bossuet, Vaughan, and others—who may be classed among the interpreters of both the Spiritual and Praeterist Schools; and all of the Spiritual School can recognize in the events to which both the Historic and Prasterist Schools point, illustrations of the principles which we think the Apostle depicted in these visions.  But among the adherents of this School A Lapide names only Alcazar and Salmeron, though the former proposes in many cases the very interpretations which the present Lectures support; namely, the “world” as the “wild beast,” and fleshly agents as its ” prophet.” Later writers add Wouters, Grotius, Hammond, Bossuet, Calmet, Wetstein, Eichhorn, Hug, Herder, Ewald, Lucke, De Wette, Dusterdieck, Moses Stuart, Maurice, Vaughan, Bleek, Davidson, Volkmar, Renan, Farrar.”
  • 1893: Milton Terry, The prophecies of Daniel “To sum up all in a single paragraph, the seventy heptades represent an indefinite period extending from the end of the exile until the final disruption of national Judaism by the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple. This was a period of nearly six centuries (from B. C. 536 to A. D. 70). The symbolical number 70 is divided into three parts of 7, 62, and 1. The first indicates the period of restoration from exile ; the third the end of the age, the last days of the pre-Messianic era, conceived vividly as a single heptade. The intervening period of sixty- two heptades is of course the undefined space of time between the restoration from exile and the final heptade of consummation. The seventieth heptade is the time when Messiah appears, establishes a new covenant with many, and, to use the language of Isaiah (liii, 10), it pleases Jehovah to bruise him and to make his soul an offering for sin, and so to supersede and do away the temple sacrifices. The end of that eventful heptade is signalized by the total destruction of the Jewish sanctuary, which pouring out of judgment on the desolate was the sign of the coming of the* Son of man and the bringing in of everlasting righteousness. This was the eonic crisis, which, according to Heb. xii, 27, 28, marked the removal of the temporary and the typical and the coming of “a kingdom that cannot be shaken.”
  • 1895: Ernest Hampden-Cook, The Christ Has Come: The Second Advent an Event of the Past, an Appeal from Human Tradition to the Teaching of Jesus and His Apostles
  • 1895: Adolf Hausrath, A History of the New Testament Times…: The Time of the Apostles, Volume 6 “It was here that the new Caesar called to mind the man who had first promised him the empire, but was still compelled to wear fetters for the sake of appearances. Josephus was summoned to the emperor’s tent, and, at Titus’ request, his chains were struck off with an axe, in token that the reproach of captivity was taken from him.”
  • 1896: William Knight, The Arch of Titus and the Spoils of the Temple “It is no exaggeration to say that the Fall of Jerusalem is the most significant national event in the history of the world.”
  • 1898: Revere Franklin Weidner, Annotations on the Revelation of St. John the Divine “There is some difficulty in determining the date of the Apocalypse. The majority of modern critical historians and commentators, diverse as may be their views on other points, agree in this, that the Apocalypse, no matter by whom written, was composed between the death of Nero (June 9, 68 A.D.) and the destruction of Jerusalem (August 10, 70 A.D.)”
  • 1899: Frank Budlong, The New Century Speaker for School and (Harvard) College “So fell Jerusalem. Its destruction was not only a fulfillment of prophecy, but it also transmits to us its own impressive lesson — “righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people.”
  • 1899: Edward Henry Hall, Papias and His Contemporaries: A Study of Religious Thought in the Second Century “Says the historian Eusebius, after giving several miraculous incidents narrated by Papias: “This same writer adds other matters too as having come to him from unwritten tradition, several parables and precepts of the Saviour, and some other things quite too mythical. Among other things he declares that after the resurrection of the dead, a thousand years would follow, during which Christ’s kingdom would exist corporeally upon this earth. Which ideas,” adds Eusebius apologetically, “I think were assumptions of his own, misconceiving the apostolic narratives, and not comprehending certain things upon their pages which were spoken mystically. For he seems to have been a man of extremely small intelligence.”



18th Century Literature on Fulfilled Eschatology

  • 1704: Ägidius Strauch, Breviarium chronologicum On the epoch of the Last Destruction of Jerusalem This destruction of Jerusalem happened at the time of the Expiration of the 70 Angelical Weeks, which, according to Dan. c.9 v.24 were determined upon the People and the Holy City
  • 1708:  Henry More, The Theological Works of Henry More “A confutation of Grotius, his Interpretation, out of our Joint-Exposition” [Early critical analysis of Futurism (Ribera) and Preterism (Grotius)]
  • 1720: Isaac Barrow, Sermon by Isaac Barrow “..the measure of their iniquity was full, and their final ruin was approaching. And that we may know their Fate, and be instructed by it, God provided and preserved a faithful Historian on purpose, who was an Eye-witness of all that befel  them : I mean Josephus, who was personally engaged, and was a considerable Commander in the Wars of the Jews with the Romans, before the Siege of Jerusalem: and being a Jew himself hath transmitted these things to posterity in a most exact and admirable History, such a History, as no man that hath the heart and bowels of a man can read without the greatest pity and astonishment.”
  • 1725: Benjamin Marshall, A chronological treatise upon the seventy weeks of Daniel: wherein is evidently shewn the accomplishment of the predicted events, as especially Of the Cutting Off of the Messiah after the predicted VII Weeks and LXII Weeks, according to the Express Letter of the Prophecy, and in most exact agreement with Ptolemy’s Canon; So Also, Of the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, in the LXXXth, or separate One Week, In the Literal, Obvious, and Primary Sense; in a particular disquisition upon the three latest hypotheses of these weeks published among us, viz. that of the late learned Bishop Lloyd; that of the late learned Dr. Prideaux; and that of the Reverend Mr. Lancaster. All which Hypotheses are here fully considered; And the late Bishop Lloyd’s is generally supported and established with Chronological Tables
  • 1726: Richard Kidder, Demonstration of the Messiah. In Which the Truth of the Christian Religion is Proved, against all the Enemies Thereof (But Especially against the Jews): “I shall prove, when I come to consider them.. The destruction of the city of Jerusalem, and temple, and Jewish state is fitly enough expressed in such terms, as seem to imply the final conflagration, and end of the world, and the great day of judgment. Thus ’tis called the end of all things, I Pet. 4.7. with Luke 21.9. and the last days, James 5.3. The destruction of a particular country or land is frequently described as the destruction of the universe. Of this we have many examples, [See Isa. 13. 10,13. Ch. 34.4. Ezek. 32.7. Jer 4.23,24. Joel 2.10. Amos 9.5. Dan. 8.10. with I Maccab. 1.28. Isa. 2.19, 21.]”
  • 1730: Dr. Nathaniel Lardner, On the Jewish Testimonies of the desolation of Jerusalem by the Romans “It will certainly be worth the while to take a testimony from these writers to the destruction of Jerusalem: ‘Rabbi Elieser said: Go. And see how the blessed and holy God helped Bar-kamtza, and he destroyed his house, and burnt up his temple, and made Jerusalem ‘desolate.'”
  • 1737: 1737: John Home, The Scripture History of the Jews, and Their Republick “Nor did he cease till he made a final End and Dissolution of the Jewish Oeconomy, which St. Peter calls the End of all things (I Pet. iv. 7) and St. James, the Coming of the Lord (Jam. v.8) and which our Saviour calls the Coming of the Son of Man (Mat. xiv. 27,28) the last of which verses may probably be an Allusion to the Roman Eagle, which was the Ensign of the Roman Empire.”
  • 1745: M. Cooper, A Dissertation on Blood “As oft as ye eat this Bread and drink this Cup, ye shew forth the Lord’s Death till he come. Which words, till he come, that they lay a particular Emphasis upon; understanding them, either to speak of Christ’s gracious coming in the Hearts of Believers, or of his vindictive Advent at the Destruction of Jerusalem.”
  • 1755.: Joshua Greenhill, An Essay on the prophecies of the New Testament which relate to the destruction of Jerusalem
  • 1755: Charles Leslie, The case of the Jews, considered with respect to Christianity “And Corn. Tacit. (Hist 1.5.) speaks almost the same words, telling of the great Prodigies, which preceded the Destruction of Jerusalem: He says, That many undersood them as the Forerunners of that extraordinary Person, whom the antient Books of the Priests did foretel should come, about that Time, from Judea, and obtain the Dominion.” (The case of the Jews, considered with respect to Christianity, by the author of Deism refuted)
  • 1761: Samuel Fehr, An introduction to the right understanding and use of the Revelation of St. John (or rather of Jesus Christ) ; and as to what relates to the past, sufficiently illustrated from ecclesiastical and secular history.  (Ger.)
  • 1763: David Durell, The Hebrew text of the parallel prophecies of Jacob and Moses relating to the twelve tribes “But other Parts of Scripture and the Event shewn us, that Christ’s Second Coming, and the Dissolution of the Jewish State are one and the same Thing… The Destruction of Jerusalem by Vespasian, which put an end to the Jewish Government, is so well known in Scripture by Christ’s, or the Son of Man’s, Coming, that it were lost Time to endeavour to prove it, it being mentioned no less than seven Times in one Chapter under that Image.”
  • 1765: William Vickers, An exposition on the Book of common prayer; with notes  “As our Saviour thus comforted his Disciples by assuring them that the destruction of Jerusalem should be means of delivering them from the oppression of the Jews; so every meek and patient Follower of Christ comfort himself under every calamity… This expression plainly shews that the foregoing prophecy relates to the destruction of Jerusalem”
  • 1767: Pernin des Chavannettes, Discours sur l’histoire des Juifs, depuis le commencement du monde, jusq’a la destruction de Jerusalem, par les Romains
  • 1770:  Samuel Hardy, Review, Hardy on the Prophecies (1770) Counter-Preterism. Hardy states that theological preterism was the “general opinion” | “With regard to some prophecies, he ventures to oppose what has been the general opinion, supported by the suffrage of very learned men, concerning their explication and accomplishment: thus concerning the predictions of Christ which are commonly supposed to have received their fulfilment in the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, he fays, ‘This prophecy was delivered very opportunely to strengthen the faith and hope of the disciples, and to render their confidence in him^ especially after his resurrection, steady and unshaken. And it is our own fault, if we make not this use of it at this very day. For the prophecy, as I believe, concerns us, and the generations that are future, as well as it concerned the Apostles, and contains irresistable persuasions to perseverance in our warfare. -—You will perceive then, that I am for extending this prophecy of our blessed Saviour’s long beyond the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.'”
  • 1775: Benjamin Blayney, Inquiry into Daniel’s Seventy Weeks “I had sent an extra of the eight last verses of the Ninth chapter of Daniel, from the ancient version of the Seventy, lately discovered and published at Rome, most obligingly returned his acknowledgments with the following ingenious remarks. “The numbers which in this version are found different from those in the common text he thinks,”may be thus accounted for. “Seventy weeks add seven weeks are 539 years. Now “Cyrus’s decree according to all the Chronologers was “issued 536 years before Christ; and if we reckon by “hebdomads of years, we cannot come nearer to Christ’s “birth. Add to the sixty two years (mentioned ver. 26 and 27. in this Greek version) the surplus of three “years in the period of seventy seven weeks; and you “have the year LXV after Christ, the year immediately preceding the Jewish war. This too is called “Chris’s coming, Matt. xvi. 28. xxiv. 3. &c. ( Thus the period of weeks refers to the birth of Christ “with a sufficient exactness for prophetical language; “and that of years marks his coming in another sense “with historical precision” Thus the year of our Lord LXX, “when the city was destroyed, and the sacrifice ceased, “was the middle year of the week.”
  • 1776: Joseph Greenhill, An essay on the prophecies of the New Testament : more especially on the prophecy of the Millennium, the most prosperous state of the church of Christ for here on earth for a thousand years
  • 1785: Richard Watson, The History of the Jewish War, and of the Siege of Jerusalem, From Josephus
  • 1790: J. Johnson, A New Translation of Isaiah: With Notes “It deserves to be considered whether the persons here described as written for life in Jerusalem, be not intended the Christians mentioned in Matt. 24:22,24.. who were wonderfully preserved at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.”
  • 1796: T. Cadell,  A Review of Dr. Whitby’s Paraphrase and Annotations on St. Matthew, Chap. XXIV In his table at the end of his first volume, he has this assertion, “All which Christ says in Matt. xxiv relates to the destruction of Jerusalem”
  • 1796: Joseph Lomas Towers, Illustrations of prophecy: in the course of which are elucidated many predictions, which occur in Isaiah, Daniel, the writings of the evangelists, and the Book of Revelation, Examination of Futurist and Preterist schemes of interpretation by a Historicist
  • 1799: Heneage Elsley, Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles: Compiled and Arranged for the Use of Students “The obligations which the Christian world owe to the writings of Josephus are very great… Lastly, and above all, Josephus seems to have been raised by Providence to verify, in his relation of the miseries accompanying the siege of Jerusalem, the prophecies of our blessed Lord relating to that dreadful catastrophe.”
  • 1799: Religious Tract Society, The Fulfilment of Prophecy in the Destruction of Jerusalem: Considered as an Eminent Proof of the Truth of Christianty  “Our Lord predicted that the destruction of Jerusalem should take place before the generation of men then existing should pass away. And it actually took place within forty years from that time.. It could not, therefore, be from mere human foresight that our Saviour foretold these events; ..he could never have imagined or invented such a variety of minute particulars as he did predict, and as actually came to pass.”


17th Century Literature on Fulfilled Eschatology

  • 1614: Thomas Wilson, Passion Sermon Preached at Canterbury Cathedral  “All the olde Testament cannot yeeld an example of such severitie in punishing sinne as here is threatened touching the destruction of Jerusalem next hit and downefall of the Jewes. No sorrow was like their sorrow.
  • 1640: Hugo Grotius, Commentario ad loca quaedam Novi Testamenti, quae de Antichristo agunt aut agere putantur, expendenda eruditis “The first Protestant to accept this Preterist view was Hugo Grotius, a Dutch individual who was eager to bridge the gap between Protestants and the Roman Catholic Church. His first effort to establish common ground was his writings entitled, Commentary On Certain Texts Which Deal With Antichrist (1640), in which he attempted to argue that the texts relating to the Antichrist had their fulfillment in the First Century A.D. Although his work was not well received by Protestants, Grotius continued on. In his next work, Commentaries On The New Testament (1641-1650), he expanded his Preterist views to include the Olivet Prophecy and the Book of Revelation. “
  • 1645: Thomas Hayne,  Christs Kindome on Earth Opened “But the famous Kindome of Christ and Christians began moe years then one thousand five hundred agon.. Therefore the notable binding of Satan began one thousand five hundred years agon, and therefore is past long before our time.”
  • 1650: John Lightfoot, The Temple as it Stood in the Days of Jesus
  • 1653: Thomas Manton, A Practical Commentary on James, Unto the Coming of the Lord “This epistle was written about thirty years after Christ’s death, and there was but little time between that and Jerusalem’s last, so that unto the coming of the Lord is until the overwhelming of Jerusalem, which is also elsewhere expressed by coming, if we may believe Chrysostom and OEcumenius of John 21:22: “If I will that he tarry till I come,” that is, say they, come to Jerusalem’s destruction.”
  • 1684: John Lightfoot, Works, Volume One, with Parergon on the Fall of Jerusalem
  • 1699: H. Rhodes, The History of the Works of the Learned: LeClerc’s Hammond “Words assert it, yet he gives sufficient Innuendo’s what his Opinions are as to these Matters. We shall not enlarge upon such an ungrateful Topic, but proceed to give an Account, very briefly, of what our Author charges M. le Clerc with, as to the Unjust Reflections he has made on Dr. Hammond.”


16th Century Literature on Fulfilled Eschatology

  • 1584: Iohn Stockwood, schoolemaister of Tunbridge., A very fruitfull and necessarye sermon of the moste lamemtable [sic] destruction of Ierusalem, and the heauy iudgementes of God, executed vppon that people for their sinne and dissobedience : published at this time to the wakening and stirring vp of all such, as bee lulled asleepe in the cradle of securitie or carelesnesse, that they maye at length repente them of their harde hartednes, and contempt of God his word, least they taste of the like plagues for their rebellion and vnrepentance, not knowing with the wilfull inhabitants of Ierusalem, the daye of their visitation “And in any case lette us take heede howe daungerous a thynge it is to make Christe Jesus weepe.”

    Paul Julius Alexander (1985) The Byzantine Apocalyptic Tradition “Wherever the circumstances of the Last Roman Emperor’s death are mentioned, they follow directly upon his surrender of imperial power to God at Jerusalem. This act in turn is invariably related to his victory over the infidels and thus expresses the notion that by it the Last Roman Emperor has discharged the function assigned to him by God”