Below, you will find the following 16 different views of full preterism, in the following alphabetical order, for your information. The person’s name after the view is the name of the one who submitted it.
16 Different Views of Full Preterism
Compiled by Genuine Preterism, a Facebook group
- Charismatic Preterism
- Comprehensive Grace/Pantelism
- Covenant Eschatology
- Essential Body View
- Evangelical Preterism
- Fulfilled Revelation Theology
- Full Revelation Bible View
- Israel Only View
- Literal Millennial Reign Preterism
- Narrative-Critical Fulfilled View
- Natural 2 Spiritual View
- Perpetual Millennium Preterism
- Post-Apocalyptic View
- Synthesis Eschatology/Preterist-Idealist View
- Temporary Ekklesia Theory
Nature and Time of Parousia: Judgment upon those that killed the apostles and prophets in 70 AD
Nature and Time of Resurrection: Temple’s destruction signified that the resurrection of the dead had begun in 70 AD
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: Same as above, but perpetual, per Revelation 14:13
Nature and Time of the Millennium: There is no definitive point as to when the ‘millennium began, but there is a definitive point as to when it ended, and I believe that coincides with the stoning of Stephen. I believe that this concept runs parallel with the apocalyptic ‘picture’ or scene that we see in Revelation 12 (of course, not verbatim, or in lock-step since we’re dealing with signs and symbols). The beginning of the millennium coincides with Revelation 12:1.
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? On-going salvation
Universalism? No universalism.
What Continues Today? The kingdom and the way to enter the kingdom – being born again (John 3:3).
Unique Characteristics of View: Jesus brought the kingdom, as well as its benefits. Signs, wonders, miracles, healing, deliverance, etc., were all benefits of the kingdom and having a supernatural God living in our midst (on the inside of believers).
(Tim King’s term)
Nature and Time of Parousia: AD70, destruction of Temple and end of Age of Law. Also hold possible “visible appearance of Christ in the clouds, alluded to by Josephus
Nature and Time of Resurrection: Physical for dead saints at AD70; not sure about “the rest of the dead”
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: rapture was literal (physical)
Nature and Time of the Millennium: Starting at the Parousia. Might be wrong, and it’s the 40 year “NT period.”
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? Salvation is secured and unconditional
Universalism? technically might not be, since some did suffer the “Second Death”, and I believe there was more of an urgent danger to the soul than the “symbolic” or “covenant” death others believe in.
What Continues Today? the unconditional nature of redemption
Unique Characteristics of View #2, 3 and 4. I had initially rejected regular full preterism because I could not get past the “symbolic” interpretation of certain scriptures, but these two ideas are what made it all click for me.
Covenant Eschatology celebrates the victory of God in the redemption, reconciliation and restoration of what lost through the entrance of sin-death into the world through Adam (Rom. 5:12; 6:23). The symphony of God’s “purpose of the ages” (Eph. 3:11), is traced through the progressive unfolding of redemptive history, having been “promised before the ages began” (Titus 1:2 ESV), from Genesis to Revelation. The crescendo and grand climax of God’s purpose that brings about the “restoration of all things” (Acts 3:21) occurs during the “fulness of the times” (Eph. 1:10), or “last days” (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:16-21), between the Cross and 70 CE. This period of time ushers in the arrival of the “new heavens and a new earth” (Isa. 65:17; 66:22; II Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1-4), and the New Jerusalem as the dwelling place for all of the redeemed.
Nature and Time of the Parousia: Covenant Eschatology understands the word “parousia” to mean both presence and the arrival associated with it, in conjunction with the “end of the age” (Matt. 24:3) in 70 CE.
Nature and Time of the Resurrection: Covenant Eschatology teaches that the resurrection of the dead was both corporate and covenantal in nature. It was the “hope of Israel” (Acts 28:20), foretold in the OT prophets (Isa. 26:19; Ezek. 37:1-13; Hos. 13:14), and during the “last days” (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:16-21) involved two-stages of one resurrection, from sin-death that entered into the world through Adam (Rom. 5:12). The resurrection was a process that began with Pentecost and completed with the “end of the age” in 70 CE.
On the corporate level, resurrection was out from the “natural” body (Old Covenant) and into the “spiritual” body (New Covenant) (I Cor. 15:46). With the death of Messiah, the “natural” body was “sown” and with the consummation of the age the “spiritual” body was “raised” (I Cor. 15:43, 44).
Through the work of the Holy Spirit, God “called out” (Matt. 16:18), the “remnant” (Joel 2:32; Rom. 9:27; 11:5) of Israel, in advance of the parousia, as a “chosen generation” (I Pet. 2:9), the 144,000 “firstfruits” (Rom. 8:23; James 1:18; Rev. 14:1-3). The “gospel of Christ” (Rom. 1:16) was extended also to people from “every nation, tribe, people and tongue” (Rev. 7:9), to bring about the “fullness of the Gentiles” (Rom. 11:25) and to accomplish the deliverance of “all Israel” (Rom. 11:26). The reign of Christ during the “last days” was to bring about the defeat of the power of “sin and death” (Rom. 8:2; II Tim. 1:10; I Cor. 15:26).
At the “end of the age” those who had died from the time of Adam and Eve onward were released from Sheol/Hades (John 5:28-29; Rev. 20:5-15). Those “righteous” received eternal life in the presence of God, while those “unrighteous” were sentenced to everlasting “cutting off” from the presence of God in destruction (Matt. 25:46). The New Jerusalem is the covenantal dwelling place for all of the redeemed (Rev. 21:1-4) who live in God’s presence.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: Covenant Eschatology teaches that the nature of the “gathering” (II Thess. 2:1; Matt. 24:32), was the time when the “change” or “transformation” of believers with sin-death was completed, out from the Old Covenant “body of death” (Rom. 7:24) and into the New Covenant body of life and righteousness (II Cor. 3:7-18; Rom. 8:29). It was the time of the resurrection and glorification of believers. It was the emerging of the New Covenant out from the Old Covenant in the “new birth” for Israel (John 3:3-5), and for those who entered into Israel’s “spiritual things” (Rom. 15:27).
Nature and Time of the Millennium: Covenant Eschatology teaches that the “thousand years” of Revelation 20, is a recapitulation of the other episodes found throughout the book that describes the victory of God over his enemies. The “thousand years” represents a complete period of time, during the “last days” consisting of approximately 40 years in duration. The defeat of Satan, sin, death and resurrection belonged to the “things which must shortly come to pass” (Rev. 1:1) and the “at hand” (Rev. 1:3) time of fulfillment.
On-going Salvation? Covenant Eschatology teaches that salvation or deliverance is now an accomplished reality. The process of redemptive history was completed when Christ appeared the “second time apart from sin, for salvation” (Heb. 9:28). Christ came to make an “end of sins” (Dan. 9:24-27), when he “he put away sin by the sacrifice of himself” (Heb. 9:26), at the “ends of the ages”. Those who enter into the “everlasting covenant” (Heb. 13:20), in response to the “everlasting gospel” (Rev. 14:6) are “in Christ” as a “new creation” (II Cor. 5:17), and are in a relationship with God where there is “no condemnation” (Rom. 8:1). The completed work of redemption is symbolized in the applied meaning of Christ’s death and individual participation (Rom. 6:3-5; Gal. 3:26, 27). Salvation as a completed process has ongoing effect for those who accept Christ in faith (Heb. 11:6).
Universalism? Covenant Eschatology teaches universalism as to opportunity and not determination. The “message of the cross” (I Cor. 1:18) is offered to everyone and those coming to Christ in response to that message are given the gift of eternal life. Those who reject the “gospel of Christ” are “cut off” from the presence of God and remain in that condition. Relationship with God arises from knowing God and knowing Christ (John 17:3).
What continues today? Covenant Eschatology teaches that the purpose of the “end of the age” was to usher in a “new heavens and a new earth” (Isa. 65:17; 66:22; II Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1-4). The New Jerusalem remains the covenant dwelling place for believers. The Kingdom of God is established. Forgiveness of sins continues. The “glorious church” (Eph. 5:25-27) continues as a “community” for believers to work together, upbuild one another, and reach out to those in need. The goal remains the “healing of the nations” and to invite others into covenant relationship with God where deliverance from bondage and brokenness are found. Believers continue to growth into maturity as they walk with Christ daily in following what is found in the revealed Word of God.
Unique Characteristics of the View: Covenant Eschatology is unique in maintaining the inseparable framework of what occurred during the “last days” between the Cross and 70 CE. The emphasis on the corporate aspect of fulfillment of the “promises made to the fathers” (Rom. 15:8), and the work of the “remnant” to complete the work of God begun at the Cross. The deliverance of “all Israel” (Rom. 11:26) was inextricably linked to the “last days” mission and ministry of the Holy Spirit that resurrected in the resurrection of the dead and the glorification of believers–Jews/Gentiles.
Essential Body View (EBV)
EBV is an eschatological paradigm that interprets the “resurrection” from a full preterist perspective. It allows the “RESURRECTION” language — “body”, “flesh”, “dead”, “mortality”, “corruption”, “grave”, “dust”, “raised up”, “made alive”, etc — to SPEAK FOR ITSELF and strives to make sense of it in light of the time-texts AND the testimony of history. EBV proposes that the reason why God called “one” Middle Eastern man in approx. 4,000BC to divine “service” was to create **through** him a “HOLY PRIESTHOOD” to “minister” to the “spirits” of those who “worship” Him in the “heavenly country”. Whilst this purpose was thwarted because of Adam’s “disobedience” it was accomplished **through** Abraham because of his “obedience”. This explains why scripture becomes Israel-centric after the Fall.
Nature and Time of Parousia: PHYSICAL (70AD) EBV proposes that Christ’s parousia and the “end” of redemptive history occurred PRECISELY when God said it would — i.e. when the “power of the holy people” was “completely shattered” by Rome (70AD).
Nature and Time of Resurrection: PHYSICAL (70AD) EBV submits that the “BODIES” of the saints were “RAISED” from the “GRAVE” and brought before Christ for Judgment at the parousia (70AD). But NOT the **entirety** of their Biological Substance, **sufficient only** to “COVER” their “spirits” before God and IDENTIFY them as His “holy servants”. The HIDDEN nature of the eschatological “RESURRECTION” helps to explain the post-parousia ‘silence’ concerning this event and accounts for why the PHYSICAL remains of Israelites have been discovered in Jerusalem dating to the mid 1st-century. It also accounts for the existence of Jewish Christians who lived THROUGH the parousia. As with Christ’s “TRANSFIGURATION” on the “holy mount”, if the eschatological “RESURRECTION” was NOT visible to **ordinary** sight it would also agree with the Lord’s teaching that the “Kingdom of God” would “NOT come with OBSERVATION”.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: PHYSICAL (70AD) EBV suggests that when we combine **scriptural evidence** WITH **historical evidence** and accept both at FACE VALUE, the most plausible explanation for the eschatological “RESURRECTION” was that the Lord “sanctified” a SMALL amount of the Biological Substance of His People to “COVER” their “spirits” before Him — the locus of which was probably in their “blood”. EBV further suggests that the NATURE of this Substance was “CHANGED” at the parousia to equip it for a “HEAVENLY” environment before it was “caught up” to Christ. [ SAME substance, DIFFERENT properties. ] Thus, the “spirits” of the “DEAD” received an immediate “COVERING” before the Lord whilst the “spirits” of the “LIVING” received theirs at the END of their earthly pilgrimage.
Nature and Time of the Millennium: SYMBOLIC (APOSTOLIC AGE) As with the number “12,000”, EBV proposes that the number “1,000” was used SYMBOLICALLY in the Book of Revelation. Because it related to a time when the saints were “beheaded for their witness to Jesus” it could NOT have represented ANY period in history **before** 30AD. Thus, EBV proposes that the ‘millennium reign’ SIGNIFIED the Apostolic Age (30-70AD). That is, the **transition period** between the “natural” and the “spiritual” when the saints “reigned with Christ” and “overcame” ALL opposition “by the blood of the Lamb and the word of their testimony”.
On-going Salvation or Not? NO BIBLICAL “SALVATION” POST 70AD “Mortality”/“immortality”, “corruption”/“incorruption”, “life”/“death” in a REDEMPTIVE context applied to the “BODIES” of God’s People, NOT their “spirits”. Thus, EBV proposes that “salvation” from the “DEATH” of Adam by the resurrection “LIFE” of Christ CEASED when the DEAD were “raised up” and the LIVING “changed” at the parousia (70AD). [ NB: It was **only ever** God’s will that His “servants” have EMBODIED existence before His Throne. ]
Universalism? NO UNIVERSALISM EBV submits that the doctrine of ‘universalism’ is NOT taught in scripture.
What Continues Today? CONTINUED DELIVERANCE FROM “WICKEDNESS” It is important NOT confuse what was required for God to create a “HOLY PRIESTHOOD” before His Throne with the need for those **not** called to divine “service” to be ACCOUNTABLE to their Maker. [ This is the Israel Only (IO) error. ] Thus, EBV proposes that “repentance from wickedness” STILL applies to the “sons of men” and that the “spirits” of those who do so will be ministered to by God’s “servants” in the “heavenly country”. [ NB: As with God who “is spirit”, scripture teaches that man’s “spirit” is the seat of his ‘higher faculties’. As it NOWHERE teaches the annihilation of man’s “spirit” it must STILL “return” to God upon death so that it can be appointed to its “own place”. ]
Unique Characteristics of View: SANCTIFIED BIOLOGICAL SUBSTANCE Notwithstanding advocates of modern hyper-spiritual ‘theories’ such as Covenant Eschatology (CE) and the Collective Body View (CBV), MOST accept that the **entirety** of Christ’s Biological Substance was “RESURRECTED” from the “GRAVE” and translated into Heaven at His ascension. [ SAME substance, DIFFERENT properties. ] However, one distinctive characteristic of EBV is its proposal that the “RESURRECTION” of His fellow ”servants” ONLY applied to an **aspect** of their Biological Substance — sufficient only to “COVER” their “spirits” before God. It supports this by proposing that the EMBODIED existence of Christ and His brethren in God’s HEAVENLY Temple was **prefigured** by the UNIQUE “garments” that “COVERED” the “High Priest” and the more modest “garments” that “COVERED” his fellow “priests” in God’s EARTHLY Temple.
Additionally, concerning 1 Cor 15:51-52 EBV proposes the following: “Behold, I tell you a MYSTERY: We shall NOT all **sleep** (see vs.6 for what Paul meant by **sleep** in THIS passage), but we shall ALL (“LIVING” and “DEAD”) be CHANGED. In a MOMENT, in the TWINKLING OF AN EYE, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the DEAD will be RAISED INCORRUPTIBLE, and we (the “LIVING”) shall be CHANGED..” (1 Cor 15:51-52). Its clear that a “BODY” of “flesh and blood CANNOT inherit the Kingdom of God” (vs.50). In vs.51-52 Paul explains what was required BEFORE this could happen and refers BACK to what he said in vs.44-46 to describe HOW the saint’s “natural BODY” (psuchikos sōma) would **soon** become a “spiritual BODY” (pneumatikos sōma). This would come to pass, he said, after it was “CHANGED” — i.e. after that which is natural/mortal/corruptible was EXCHANGED for a that which is spiritual/immoral/corruptible. In other words, when the “IMAGE of the man of DUST” was EXCHANGED for the “IMAGE of the HEAVENLY Man” (vs.49). [ SAME “body”, DIFFERENT properties. ] The Corinthians were already “stirred up” to expect that something would **soon** happen to the saints whose DEAD BODIES “slept” in the “DUST”. [ NB: Their BODIES “slept” in the “DUST”, like their “spirits” they were NOT annihilated. ] But the “MYSTERY” Paul revealed to them here was that the saint who “remained” at the “last trump” would NOT have to “sleep” before he received his “spiritual BODY”. He would receive it along with the “DEAD” in the “twinkling of an eye”. Now, as there are NO REPORTS ANYWHERE of a “great multitude which no one could number” suddenly VANISHING in 70AD, this MUST have applied to an **aspect** of the saints Biological Substance ONLY, not its **entirety**. An **aspect** Sanctified by God to “COVER” their “spirits” before Him in the ENVIRONMENT they were destined to spend the “ages of the ages”. Thus was “DEATH” “swallowed up in victory” and the saint’s “BODY” equipped to “inherit the Kingdom of God” (vs.50, 54).
Nature and Time of Parousia: AD 70. This was Jesus’ effectual divine presence in judgment.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: AD 70. All those saints residing in hades at that time went to heaven in their glorified, immortal bodies.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: AD 70. This was related to Jesus’ final redemption of the saved/elect consistent with such passages as Luke 21:28; Hebrews 9:28; 1 Peter 1:3-9; etc.
Nature and Time of the Millennium: ended AD 70
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? Yes
What Continues Today? Man’s sinful nature and his need for salvation, reproof, correction, and training in righteousness; God’s role in sustaining the universe, in salvation, and in judgment of nations and individuals.
Unique Characteristics of View Fulfillment of biblical prophecy enhances our understanding of classical Christianity; it does not detract from it. We specifically reject: aberrant doctrines of millennialism (especially dispensationalism, which we think is a different gospel), fideism, nominalism, antinomianism, liberalism, legalism, and universalism. And we specifically and forcefully reject the errors of “hyper-preterism,” which include: (a) the idea that God no longer judges people after AD 70, (b) that God’s soteriological (salvific) workings ended in AD 70, (c) that man’s sin is no longer an issue after AD 70, (d) the “Collective Body View” (CBV) of resurrection–that resurrection is nothing more than corporate justification of Israel, thus over-spiritualizing resurrection such that heaven is on earth, or that heaven offers nothing better than what we have on earth, (e) that Christians must necessarily give up the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper after AD 70.
Fulfilled Revelation Theology
Nature and Time of Parousia: image/glory of God in AD 70
Nature and Time of Resurrection: changing of the mindset/knowledge of the church body during the last days to the mind of Christ/finalized on the last day in AD 70
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: changing of the mindset/knowledge of the church body during the last days to the mind of Christ/finalized on the last day in AD 70
Nature and Time of the Millennium: the time period of the last days when the old corporate mindset of Adam was losing authority and the new corporate mindset of Christ was being established and revealed completely, approximately the forty years between the cross and AD 70
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? yes and no….no in that salvation in FRT was usually in regard to not being destroyed in the lake of fire with its destruction of the authority of the mindset of Adam/the world. Yes in that the “fulfilled revelation” message about God revealed in Christ and his saints continues to be presented without end for humanity
Universalism? Yes and no….yes in that the “fulfilled revelation” of God applies to everyone, that is in FRT that God’s love is unconditional. No in that only those in the setting of the biblical narrative had a need to get saved, and in addition only a few of that specific audience were saved
What Continues Today? The fulfilled revelation continues today according to FRT. Anything that was apart of the “world” that was then passing away no longer applies. Anything that was specific to the church does not apply to those post Parousia. So things like sin, judgment, resurrection, baptism, the Lord’s supper, spiritual gifts, etc no longer continue according to FRT.
Unique Characteristics of View The FRT view sees terms like judgment, resurrection, salvation, death, life, and others quite different than any other eschatological view that I know about.
Full Revelation Bible View
(Marthy Austria, aka Mati Kalubusan)
Nature and Time of Parousia: Literal coming of Jesus Christ when he was incarnated and born on earth. After his death and resurrection, he ascended to heaven (literal) but it also means he got “all authority in heaven and earth” and “exalted far above all heavens” and filled all things. At 70 A.D. he came to Israel (both prophetically and historically) and destroyed Jerusalem and its temple (heavens and earth). Since Christ’s incarnation he was here on earth, yes he is present. Παρουσια is “presence”.
Nature and Time of resurrection: There are two kinds of resurrection but both are physical. The contrasts are not “physical” and “spiritual” but “natural” and “spiritual”. When a man is resurrected, he gets “spiritual” body of flesh and it is “spiritual” in contrast with the “natural” or “soulish” body that’s destined to die. It doesn’t mean that his “natural body” in the grave will rise again but God prepared a “spiritual” body in the heavens for him.
(1) The resurrection of Israel. Israelites from both houses – the house of Judah (Jews) and the house of Israel/Ephraim (Greeks/Gentiles), who believed in Jesus as the Messias were resurrected/changed individually and corporately since Christ’s resurrection until 70 A.D. (at the last trump). And they were gathered as the Bride at the “New Jerusalem” in the third heaven.
(2) The resurrection of the saints after Acts. The believers in Christ Christ (all men since Post Acts period) were changed/resurrected IN Christ. It means when Christ rose again, they rose also, when Christ ascended and exalted they were also. It means their resurrection happened already as stated in Ephesians 2:5,6. They have their bodies (mortal) on earth when they were still alive, but since they believed in Jesus they received their spiritual bodies in them, and when they die, they put off the mortal body and put on the spiritual body and go to heaven “far above all heavens” even far above the New Jerusalem which was for “Israel only”.
Nature and Time of Gathering/Rapture: For Israel only, 70 AD. For believers in Christ (all men after Acts) or 70 AD, anytime.
Nature and Time of Millennium: Literal 1000 years (from David to 70 A.D.)
Ongoing Salvation? Yes, on going salvation for everyone who believes in the finished work of Christ.
According to prophecy: Salvation is for Israel only (including the Gentiles). Jesus came “to save his people from their sins”. Christ died for “our sins” (Israel only). Resurrection at the last day for Israel only.
But according to the mystery: Salvation is for all men. Christ’s blood is also applied to people who believe the gospel beyond 70 AD. This mystery was exclusively and progressively revealed to Paul the apostle of the Gentiles. And salvation is not limited to 70 AD and Israel only.
Universalism? Not universalism. No universal salvation. Everyone needs to believe the gospel of Christ.
What continues today? Salvation/ eternal life/ immortality to all who believe the gospel of Christ. But no eternal hellfire/ eternal torment for unbelievers. Everyone who does not believe simply die a biological death and rises no more.
The Parousia or the prophesied coming of Christ (for Israel church only) was fulfilled in the first century. But his “appearing” or “manifestation” with the present day believers continues. (When a believer dies, he appears with Christ in the heavenly places).
Any Unique Characteristics of View: This view believes in “rightly dividing the word of truth” between ISRAEL in the past and the BELIEVERS today after 70 AD in the present and for ever.
Different plans and destinations for Israel and All men (after 70 AD). If not then there must not be Israel and God began the story not highlighting Israel. There is really for “Israel only” plan such as their laws, statutes, temple sacrifices, etc. But this Israel was divided into two: the natural and the spiritual. The old covenant and the new covenant. The old covenant Israel’s destiny was the earth. The New covenant Israel (church) were gathered to the New Jerusalem in heaven.
On the other hand, the present day believers don’t have any connection with the New Jerusalem or the covenants. They neither become spiritual Israelites or Jews, nor replaced Israel. There is still the Israel of God today but it is not on earth but in heaven, the New Jerusalem. The post 70 AD body of believers is gathered to the heaven “far above all heavens” where Christ is. Since Israel’s rejection of the gospel at the end of Acts, God turned to the Gentiles (now it is all men) and started the “fellowship of the mystery”. This fellowship of the mystery is for all men. It is the plan of God which he purposed before the foundation of the world, and is “throughout all ages, world without end”. No more law, sin, judgment. God is showing the exceeding riches of his grace toward us in eternity.
FULL REVELATION BIBLE VIEW sees All Scripture is complete and all sufficient. It is the complete revelation. No need for extra- biblical revelation and or gifts/ visions/ dreams/ prophecies. It believes that all the gifts of Acts period (Romans, 1 Corinthians, Ephesians) all ceased and stopped operating with the completion of the revelation of God written by Paul the apostle (the last apostle, it is not John). Therefore today those gifts don’t exist. There are no more apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers gifts. They all ceased.
There is no more need for water baptism, Lord’s Supper, circumcision or any ordinance for Israel and by Israel only
All prophecies are fulfilled and all the mysteries are revealed. And we stand only on the revealed ones and we study them diligently and we see further light though investigating.
(Rivers of Eden, Corey Shultz)
Nature and Time of Parousia: Literal, historical Parousia (c. AD 70).
Var. (Roger Beck) A spiritual presence that was awakened by the preaching of the gospel until AD70.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: Individual, physical resurrection of all dead and living descendants of Abraham up to, and including, the apostolic generation.
Var. (Roger Beck) Spiritual awakening from death of darkness taken from the worldly view, which the religious leaders incorporated into their own beliefs.
Var. (Timothy Matthews) Non-physical; recognition and fellowship with and by the God of Israel.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: Individual, physical resurrection on the last day only (c. AD 70).
Var. (Roger Beck) Spiritual, unification of those that believe.
Var. (Timothy Matthews) Non-physical, same as resurrection.
Nature and Time of the Millennium: Literal 1,000 years which represent the duration of the Davidic rule leading up to the Parousia (c. 900s BC to 0s AD).
Var. (Roger Beck) Spiritual, OT through AD70.
Var. (Timothy Matthews) Ending in AD70
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? No
Universalism? No universal salvation (hence, Israel only).
What Continues Today? Mortality continues for everyone who did not receive immortality on the day of the Parousia.
Unique Characteristics of View: The Preterist hermeneutic according to Israel Only is unique due to the fact that it is the logical conclusion to the Preterist hermeneutic. It leaves no loose ends in the Bible’s fulfillment in AD 70. As Israel was the only intended recipient of the NC (Rom. 11:25-27, Heb. 8:8-12), so were they the only intended recipient of the one time biological resurrection (John 5:28-29, Acts 26:6-8, Rom. 9:3-5) and gathering (Mk. 13:27, 1 Thess. 4:16-17, 2 Thess. 2:1, Rev. 21:12).
Israel Only concludes there are no on going rewards of the judgment such as eternal life, and immortality as they were fulfilled in AD 70 (Rom. 2:6-7) and intended for a specific people at a specific time (John 6:39-40) and not after. With the fulfillment of the Bible there is no such thing as Christianity today and all people cease to exist when they die because they are not promised resurrection from the dead or being gathered into the kingdom as those who were alive and remain did in AD 70 (1 Cor. 15:51, 1 Thess. 4:16-17). There are no assumptions made about the Bible applying to anyone today.
Literal Millennial Reign Preterism
(Chad Kennow, Daniel Morais)
Nature and Time of Parousia: Siege of AD 70 physical appearances “chariots in the clouds” as recorded in Josephus.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: 1st Resurrection spiritual AD 70;, 2nd Resurrection spiritual AD 1096 and perpetual upon the physical death of the individual.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: AD 70 Spiritual change in relationship “in the twinkling of an eye.”
Nature and Time of the Millennium: Spiritual reign. Literal 1000 years from AD 71- AD 1071/1096 First Crusade.
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? Yes, continued salvation of the obedient believer.
Universalism? Not Universal, limited to those “In Christ.”
What Continues Today? The continued expansion of God’s Kingdom both on Earth and in Heaven.
Unique Characteristics of View Literal 1000 years post AD 70.
Narrative-Critical Fulfilled View
(Marcos A. Colón)
Nature and Time of Parousia: AD70, destruction of Temple. Some of the NT scriptures may have been written during or even after the AD70 events including Revelation and the Gospels. Either pre or post the event has scriptural significance as a horizon event in the Biblical Narrative marking the end of the old and the manifestation of the new.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: The nature of the resurrection as a narrative device functions as a figure of exaltation and vindication of the persecuted and martyred saints. The resurrection motif provided hope and encouragement to hold fast til the end in the midst of tribulation. The message is that at the end it doesn’t matter how bad things looked God would vindicate and grant victory to his followers.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: Spiritual. The gathering in the OT was literally restoration into the land and the covenant. That pointed to the realization of the fullness of the Christ-consciousness identity.
Nature and Time of the Millennium: Narrative device that served as an reaffirmation of vindication and victory of the saints. I wouldn’t assign a specific time since it might have probably been written after 70 AD and was reflective of the prevalent condition at the time of the written and the hope and expectation the Christians lived in at the moment.
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? The word salvation have different connotations. Traditionally is understood in terms of afterlife punishment or reward. I don’t hold that view and I think it has never been literally true. The Bible specially the OT talks about salvation in terms of deliverance from oppression and restoration into the covenant with God that would bring peace, justice, blessing and prosperity. I think that kind of salvation was related to the covenant language and relative to the blessings and curses established in that covenant. Other connotation of salvation is spiritual enlightenment. I think it would be more appropriate to talk about salvation in those terms instead of the framework of sin consciousness in which the Biblical narrative developed. There has never been actual separation from God but the scriptural revelation unravels in that perception up to the point of fulfillment where that consciousness is shown inadequate and nullified. If we are “saved” today I would say it would be salvation from the ignorance of God’s love and union.
Universalism? Universalism is a futurist eschatology framed in the traditional view of salvation I explained in the last question. I don’t think labeling it universalism makes any justice to my view. It is perceived as such by those who still understand salvation from the traditional framework standpoint. But I don’t think we have ever been separated or doomed to be separated from God. So I don’t see the same need for “salvation” that universalist think is “at the end (in the future)” everybody gets saved somehow. In terms of the Biblical narrative and fulfillment not everybody “got saved” at the end, because some were vessels of destruction that “perished” as their identity in the old system was voided. Today I would say that in terms of our “standing” and true identity in God nobody needs salvation in the sense it is traditionally understood. Still we need enlightenment to be “saved” from spiritual ignorance. What continues today? God unconditional and inescapable love.
Unique Characteristics of View: Consideration to the possibility of post 70AD NT writings. Doctrinal and ideological openness.
Natural 2 Spiritual View
The Natural 2 Spiritual View asserts that there are at least two layers to everything in Scripture – a natural layer and a spiritual layer – and that they are two sides of the same coin. Most other preterist views will take EITHER a natural (literal or physical or having to do with nature or even carnality, or all Israel) approach, or they will spiritualize everything. The Natural 2 Spiritual View asserts that both the natural AND the spiritual are necessary, and that the natural always points to the spiritual. In order to understand the spiritual, we must understand the natural foundations in Scripture first.
The Natural 2 Spiritual view also asserts that there are both a corporate and an individual aspect to everything spiritually, and to many natural matters as well. The corporate always includes individuals, and the individuals within a particular group make up the corporate.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: Feast of Trumpets (7th month, 1st day, AD70)
Spiritual, corporate fulfillment of latter harvest, separating the wheat from the chaff, in AD70, when all believers were gathered together from the four winds at the last trump as one bride to stand on the sea of glass in heaven. This was also the first resurrection of the righteous before the millennium. This was the call to get ready for the imminent wedding.
Naturally, this was the corporate salvation (deliverance) of the saints from the “wrath to come” (seven bowls of wrath).
Spiritually, this is when we all become a new creation today, individually into the corporate body.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: First Resurrection: Feast of Firstfruits (at Yeshua’s death, burial, and resurrection, AD28)
Natural, corporate fulfillment of first resurrection when Yeshua unlocked the gates of Hades and the spirits of the dead saints were reunited with their “dry bones” in a physical, earthly body resurrection (Matt. 27:52-53). They were later given a heavenly body (spiritual).
First Resurrection of Revelation: Feast of Trumpets (7th month, 1st day, AD70, BEFORE millennium)
Natural, corporate fulfillment of first resurrection of the martyred/righteous saints at the beginning of the millennium – those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their forehead or their hands (Rev. 20:4-5), those who belong to Christ (I Cor. 15:23). Their spirits were released from Hades and given a heavenly body (spiritual).
Second Resurrection of Revelation: Feast of Trumpets (7th month, 1st day, AFTER millennium)
Natural, corporate fulfillment of second resurrection after the millennium – the rest of the dead not raised before the millennium (Rev. 20:5, 12-14), of both the just and the unjust (Acts 24:15). Their spirits were released from Hades and given a heavenly body (spiritual).
Spiritual transformation from death in Adam to life in Christ as we mature in our spiritual walk on earth (Col. 3:1). Natural, individual death of believer today is resurrected in a spiritual body in heaven (Rev. 14:13).
Nature and Time of Parousia: Ten Days of Awe/Wrath between Feast of Trumpets and Day of Atonement (7th month, 1st – 10th days, AD70.)
Natural, corporate fulfillment when Yeshua came to judge Jerusalem with the bowls of wrath.
Spiritual, corporate fulfillment in AD70 when Yeshua came to “save” all those who believed and overcame until the end.
Spiritual, corporate preparation of the bride for her wedding.
Spiritual fulfillment when Yeshua had victory over Satan and his demons, over the Jewish religious worship system, and over death and hades.
Nature and Time of the Millennium: Feast of Tabernacles (7th month, days 15-21, AD70)
Natural, corporate fulfillment began in AD70 (AFTER those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their forehead or their hands) (Rev. 20:4-5).
Spiritual, corporate wedding of the Messiah to His bride.
Spiritual, corporate reign of those resurrected saints in heaven during the “thousand years.”
Spiritual fulfillment applies to the ever increasing kingdom of God today.
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? Yes, we can enter into a relationship with God the Father, and with Jesus His Son, today. It is not the “salvation” of the first century, however, which was a natural deliverance from the tribulation and a spiritual deliverance from the Old Covenant into the New Covenant. We still need deliverance from our own wickedness today.
Universalism? It is appointed unto man once to die, and after this, the judgment (Heb. 9:27).
EVERY knee shall bend (in worship), and EVERY tongue shall confess to God (Is. 45:23). The spirit returns to God who gave it (Eccl. 12:7).
Those are the only things that apply to ALL mankind.
What Continues Today? We are all born in Adam, and we are all given the opportunity to be born in Christ. The body of Christ continues to grow, as does the kingdom. We still need to be delivered from our own wickedness, and to put our trust in Yeshua, who is the only way to the Father. Eternal life, which is simply having an intimate relationship with the Father and His Son, is still ours.
Israel built the house that we live in today. We must enter Israel’s things and accept Israel’s Messiah for our own. Every law and commandment that was given to Israel has both a natural principle that is for our own “good,” and a spiritual principle that guides us in our spiritual walk. We are not “under” Israel’s Law, but under God’s eternal law of love, which is unchanging, so the principles remain unchanged. All the good is always good, all the bad is always bad. God is the same yesterday, today, and forever, but He completed His plan of redemption THROUGH Israel on behalf of all mankind, so that people from EVERY nation may worship the one true God, and have a relationship with Him now.
Celebration of all that God has done in keeping all His promises and redeeming Israel on behalf of all mankind!
Unique Characteristics of View: The Bible is one continuous story.
The Bible is all about Israel, but the purpose was that God chose Israel to fulfill His plan of redemption in order that ALL mankind would come to Him.
There is a primary fulfillment in all of Scripture that mostly involves Israel and/or the first century believers. But there is also a secondary principle that applies to us today in many aspects of Scripture. It is vital to understand the difference.
There are at least two layers, two meanings, one natural and one spiritual, for everything in Scripture. The natural always points to the spiritual.
One layer was fulfilled by Israel and her Messiah; one layer is for us.
The Bible is focused mostly on the corporate story, but has individual correlation for many aspects.
We must see the “end” of Israel’s story through the Feasts of Israel (the above list is incomplete of what happened during the fulfillment of the fall feasts).
Perpetual Millennium Preterism
(Douglas Wilkinson and Jerel Kratt)
Nature and time of the parousia: Some confusion is caused by failing to honor the nuance of the Greek words erchomai and parousia, both of which are translated as “coming” in most English Bibles. The YLT is the most consistent in properly demonstrating this. Erchomai should be translated as “arrive” (an action that happens in a moment), while parousia should be translated as “presence” (an ongoing status that continues after the arrival). Therefore, the arrival of Christ in judgment happened in 66AD, establishing the presence of the kingdom of God. The first major era of the presence of the kingdom was the completion of the judgment of the Jews in the Roman War. So, it is accurate to say that the parousia occurred in 70AD, though this doesn’t exhaust the use of the term in the New Testament. Most parousia language is associated with this judgment. However, modern believers can expect to be judged after death in the presence of Christ in a similar way that the first century believers were.
Nature and Time of the Resurrection: There was a single resurrection that happened as part of the initiation of the kingdom of God. This resurrection is associated with the Great White Throne judgment of the just and the unjust that begins after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD. This resurrection included language associated with the “first resurrection” of Rev. 20:4 and the general resurrection seen elsewhere in scripture. This single resurrection scheme is possible once it is accepted that Rev. 20:5a is an illegitimate textual variant. Therefore, there aren’t two resurrections separated by 1,000 years.
This single resurrection was one in which the dead were brought from the Hadean realm to heaven to be judged. Those who succeeded in the resurrection to life were issued pneumatic bodies suitable for heaven (those were considered bona fide physical bodies according to the popular cosmology of the day). Those who received the resurrection of condemnation were cast into the Lake of Fire. This scheme naturally accommodates either annihilation or eternal conscious torment. This scheme would also easily allow for, but would not require, a literal rapture of living believers per Ed Stevens’ paradigm. The harpazo is synonymous with the resurrection, but either position is allowed by the issuing of a resurrection body made of physical, though invisible, pneumas.
Nature and Time of the Millennium: This is a bi-millennial system with no overlap between the 1,000 year periods. Satan was detained for a metaphorical 1,000 years and then released for a “little while”, immediately before the Neronic persecution. After this persecution, the erchomai (arrival) and parousia (ongoing presence) of Christ occurred, defining the initiation of the kingdom of God. The kingdom of God is synonymous with the 1,000 year reign of the saints in Rev. 20:4-6. Therefore, though there is no post Roman War historical event predicted by scripture (so predictive prophecy is fulfilled), the 1,000 year reign of the Saints represents the ongoing kingdom of God that is without end per Dan. 7:21-27 and Rev. 22:1-5. The millennial reign of the saints is perpetual.
Is Salvation Ongoing Today: Yes. There is no difference in the mechanism or dynamic of salvation for New Testament believers and modern living believers. At the time of the initiation of the Great White Throne Judgment in 70AD, the Hadean system was destroyed so that all modern people immediately move from this life to that judgment in heaven for final disposition.
Universalism: A form of Patristic Restorationist Universalism would be possible. This view of universalism was the dominant view of the early church (and is therefore inherently orthodox), and proposes that after an era (aion) of judgment in the Lake of Fire individuals are purified and restored to heaven in the presence of God. We feel that annihilation is more likely the correct view given the imagery related to final destruction found throughout scripture and most eschatological passages. But, this version of universalism view wouldn’t inherently contradict the rest of this eschatological system.
What Continues Today: The present period is the perpetual kingdom of God, or millennial reign of the saints. No end to it is described in scripture. It is essentially an Amillennial era without a predicted end. This doesn’t mean that human history continues for logical or mathematical infinity, just that the final end wasn’t the topic of scripture. If human history in the flesh were to end, individual existence in the presence of God would be literally infinite.
Unique Characteristics of this View: The combination of a single resurrection and bi-millennialism set this view apart. If the textual variant of Rev. 20:5a is removed from the text it becomes quite simple to define the structure of eschatology. On the other hand, having to account for two resurrections separated by 1,000 years (metaphorical or otherwise) causes fatal structural flaws in all other formulations (futurist or preterist). In addition, the bi-millennial paradigm eliminates the need to describe the end of the 1,000 year reign of the saints. Instead, the parallel passages describing it as “forever, forever and ever” should be authoritative on the timing. This view can accommodate a wide spectrum of CBV or IBD positions, as the nature of the resurrection should properly be seen as a combination of both. Recognizing that the resurrection body predicted typologically by the CBV is made from a physical substance known as pneumas (or spirit) according to the cosmology popular in Paul’s day makes the final resurrected state easy to describe while accommodating some of both positions.
In addition, this position effortlessly embraces the transitions away from the Divine Council system of governance in the Old Testament, replacing it with a council composed of “overcomer” believers who’ve been resurrected to rule with Christ, a theme often ignored in preterist circles.
Nature and Time of Parousia: Jesus returned in judgment through the Roman armies as they sacked Jerusalem and demolished the temple. No future return is forecast.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: Good people enter the afterlife (“resurrection”) when they die.
Bad people cease to exist when they die.
In typical linguistic form, our individual judgments are collectivized in the NT.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: The so-called “rapture” was a metaphorical call to war in AD 70. The readers had heard that all of Jesus’ followers would participate in the judgment. Some were dead. This was an explanation as to how the living and the dead would be part of that judgment.
Nature and Time of the Millennium: Between the construction of the temple (c. 930 BC) and its last destruction (AD 70), ritual religion reigned but was unable to destroy the true believers.
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? Most of the time in the NT, “salvation” means “not having your access to God cut off when the temple is destroyed.” From the beginning of time, following God’s principles in this life has been a prerequisite for participation in the afterlife. None of that has changed.
What Continues Today? Love and Trust are the fulfillment of the Torah – all of God’s instruction. Practice these things in your relationships.
Unique Characteristics of View Both OT and NT prophecies were fulfilled shortly after they were written. When one author applies an earlier author, like Daniel, to his own time he does so knowing that it was fulfilled originally – and knowing what that fulfillment was. Usually, then, the later author was using the past to point to the future. (E.g., Daniel was writing about the trampling and desecration of the temple by gentiles; a similar thing happened in 70. Third Isaiah [chs. 65-6] was writing about life without the temple; the same thing happened in 70.)
Preterist Idealism is an interpretive method which comprehensively systematizes biblical typology. A broader label, Modern Idealism, refers to the hermeneutical structure of Preterist Idealism. A narrower label, Metamillennialism, refers to the kingdom theology of both Preterist Idealism and Modern Idealism.
Historical fulfillment of Bible prophecy is unveiled as pointing to present and immediate fulfillment in Jesus Christ today (Song 2:17; 4:6; Lu 5:5; Re 22:17). The primary focal point of all prophecy is the redemptive work of Jesus Christ (Ro 10:4; 2Co 1:20; 5:17; He 4:10; 12:2; Re 1:8,11; 2:8; 19:10; 21:6; 22:13). This dispensation of grace was settled before creation, revealed historically, but is only fully realized personally. Jesus is the Israel revealed in the Bible (Ex 4:22; Is 22:20-22; Je 2:3; Zec 16:12; Ho 11:1; Mat 2:15), therefore all prophecy and fulfillment systematically points to Him. Old Covenant Israel’s biblical history accordingly serves as a schoolmaster pointing to the Covenant Reign of King Jesus (Ps 57:1; 121:5; Joh 19:28-30; Ga 3:24; Col 2:17; He 8:5; 9:23-24; 10:1). Things seen are only the outward show of the unseen eternal elements of new creation (1Co 15:46 ; 2Co 4:18), so all revelation concerning the lesser must be used to amplify the greater (Jer. 7:4; John 2:13-21; 1Co 3:17; 2Co 6:16; Re 11:19; 21:22). If this amplification is not done systematically, idolatry results (Nu 21:8; Joh 3:14-18; 2 Kings 18:4). Though forms of Idealism have been taught by heavenly-minded writers throughout the Christian era, never before has a system been published that utilizes a fully consistent preterist modifier.
Nature and Time of Parousia: The Tabernacle of God is With Man Until Gathered At Last Day
Parousia is the communion of “heaven and earth” in the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (Ez 2:2; 11:16; 22:3; Joh 14:15-31, cf. v. 23; 2Co 6:16). The Parousia is not limited to a particular moment in time, but is an illimitable communion with believers of all ages, who serve as the habitation of Jesus Christ’s eternal kingdom (De 8:2; Ps 10:16; 24:8; 29:10; 47:2; 93:2; 145:13; Je 10:20; Ez 8:3; 10:17; Joh 16:13). The representative event for the return of the King out of the holiest place is the outpouring of the Holy Spirit as seen at Pentecost (Ps 68:18; Lu 19:12; Joh 14:3; Ep 4:8). The coming of the Kingdom of Heaven to Earth in the person of the Holy Spirit is personal and persistent, as revealed (for instance) by Jacob’s Ladder in the Old Testament and John 1:51 and Matthew 26:64 in the New. The Spirit of the Lord never leaves nor forsakes His temples until they are gathered at the last day of their sojourn (Ac 7:55-56; He 9:27,28; 2Pe 3:11). The Parousia of Jesus Christ brings to Earth the “day” of fulfillment (Zec 14:8; Lu 19:9; He 3:7, 13; 4:7; 13:18), be it for redemption or damnation. This is the Time of Refreshing of Jesus Christ’s rule (Jos 10:14; Ps 19:7; 36:8; 72:6; Is 26:19; 28:12; Ho 14:5; Ac 3:19,20; Ro 15:32) and is called the Day of the Lord, particularly in reference to His present and immediate judgment (Zep 1:14; Am 8:9; Zec 12:8; 1Th 5:2; 2Pt 3:8; Re 1:10).
Nature and Time of Resurrection: Quickened by the Spirit; Gathered into Glory
The resurrection is not a single historical event for the world in a universal sense (Joh 5:24; 1Co 6:14). Rather, it is like an assembly line of regeneration, sanctification, and glorification (Ep 1:13-14). A believer is initially quickened by the Spirit (Jo 5:24-25; Ro 8:10; Ep 2:19-22; Col 2:13; 1Jo 3:14), is winnowed and sculpted by tribulation in this world (2Ti 3:12; Ga 5:21; He 12:26-29), and is ultimately given entrance into the eternal age (2Pt 1:11; 3:13-14). The two resurrections (Re 20:4-5) are the two conspicuous comings of the King (in body and spirit), and are the two glorifications spoken of by God (Joh 12:28). Though the resurrection is received individually in each’s own historical order (1Co 15:23), it is a corporate gathering into the non-historical realm as represented by the Ascension of Jesus Christ. The victory of Jesus Christ over sin and death spoiled the enemy’s defenses, and He presently and immediately delegates His Crown rights to the entire body of the redeemed (Da 7:13,14; cf. Ac 1:6-11; Re 19:7-10), also called the Israel of God (Ga 6:16), Daughter of Zion (Zep 3:14), New Jerusalem (Ne 12:27), etc.
Nature and Time of Gathering/Rapture: At the End of the Age; Each in His Own Order.
The gathering of the elect is not a single historical event for the world in a universal sense (Mat 24:23; Mar 13:27). Rather, it is the corporate ascension of the entire Body of Christ into the timeless eternal realm (Da 7:13,14; cf. Ac 1:6-11) experienced following physical death (Joh 11:52; Ep 1:10). Individual death is the context of this gathering throughout the Bible, despite attempts to affix this event to some historical epoch past or future. The death of Stephen in Acts 7 is held up as the prime example of the workings of our gathering to Him. Though preterism sees AD70 as the time of fulfillment, their proof texts prove otherwise. The context of Matthew 16:27,28 is found in the references to death in verses 25-26. The context of Hebrews 9:28 is found the reference to dying in verse 27. The time of Paul’s gathering was death in 2 Timothy 4:6. This gathering is synonymous with the final resurrection and last judgment, which must cannot be confined to spatial history. The gathering into the everlasting age comes quickly (Zep 1:14; Re 22:12), and the time is at hand for all (Isa 13:6,22; 56:1; Je 23:23; 48:16; Ho 9:7; Joe 2:1; Mat 4:17; 26:18; Mar 1:15; 2Ti 4:6; 1Pt 4:7-11; Re 1:1,3,7; 22:6,7,10,17,20). Our face to face meeting with Jesus comes as a thief in the night (Lu 21:34), with Him appearing in the twinkling of an eye (1Co 15:52). Some of those in Christ who await his coming are blessed with sight of the kingdom coming at their departure (Mat 16:27,28; Lu 2:29-31; Ac 7:56; He 9:28; 2Pe 1:11), while all will see Him following (Phili 2:8-11; Re 1:7).
Nature and Time of Millennium: Jesus Ruling the Nations Now
The millennium is now (Ex 16:25; 2Co 6:2; Heb 3:7,13; 4:7; Coram Deo; Olam Haba). The thousand year reign of Jesus is symbolic of the overwhelming militancy of the eternal gospel (Ex 19:6; Ps 145:12; Da 4:3; Mat 4:23; 6:13; 9:35; 24:14), but was revealed in the Byzantine Millennium. The reign of Jesus Christ cannot be limited to a singular period in history past or future, but is an ever-present reality (Ec 3:11; Ps 5:2; 84:3; 10:16; 15:32; Je 10:10; 1Ti 1:17; 6:15; He 3:15; Re 1:6; 5:10; 15:3). The period explains the binding of the strong man and the spoiling of his goods in the life of the believer (Mar 3:27). All internal and external wickedness is disciplined by the rod of Israel, and Christians who wield the Spirit of the Lord effectively will see a relentless series of personal victories over sin and death (Ps 2:8; Je 10:16; Mat 16:18). Victory is assured during our reign as prophets, priests, and kings of the kingdom (Mat 22:44). At the end of this life, the accuser is loosed for a final battle as time runs short (Re 12:12; 20:3; Ja 4:14). Having your “life flash before your eyes” is an oft-repeated aspect of the final judgment/gathering/resurrection of the last day. Our gathering at the end of our lives as ambassadors of this “thousand year” kingdom is promised to be glorious for those looking for Him (2Pt 1:11; He 9:27-28; Re 1:7).
On Going Salvation or Not: Salvation from Death Offered Without End
Salvation from death and sin was not promised to Ancient Israel alone (Ge 35:11, cf. Ga 3:29; 3:8). Faith leading to salvation was given to mankind from the days of Adam (Ge 3:15), was experienced by Abraham (Ga 3:8), and will continue to be given into the coming age (Ps 25:14; 33:11). Limiting prophecy to Israel only is to mistake the shadow for the substance (Col 2:17), and leads to many doctrinal errors (Ro 1:25). Preterist-Idealism acknowledges the total fulfillment of Israel’s promises (De 19:7-9/Jo 20:7-9; 21:43-45; 23:14-15; Jer 11:5; Jo 19:28,30; Mat 24:34), while also amplifying that typology to reveal the higher truth realized in Jesus Christ alone throughout all ages (Ro 2:20; Ga 3:24-25).
Universalism or Not: Some are Broken; Some are Ground to Powder
The consequences of death and sin were poured upon the wicked prior to Calvary and will continue to be poured upon the wicked throughout all generations. There are two options presented by Jesus: submit or be left desolate (Je 8:12; 23:29; Ez 6:14; 11:16-21; 13:12; Mat 21:44). The reference in Matthew 21:44 reveals the idealist sense of prophecy which amplifies the preterist sense of desolation fulfilled in AD70 (Mat 24:2). The explanation of the shaking of the Spirit is is seen in Hebrews 12:25-29 (Ps 29:8; Ez 36:27; 38:20). Those who stubbornly resist the call to lift up their heart’s gates in order to let the King of Glory come in have their walls knocked down (Joh 2:19-21; 1Co 3:17).
What Continues Today: Everything Continues; Nothing has Ceased; All is Fulfilled in Christ
“Today” is the millennial day of Christocentric Eternalism (He 3:13; 2Pt 3:8). King Jesus has all authority in heaven and Earth and is in full charge of the affairs of the heart and history (Mat 28:18; Ep 1:22; Col 2:9). His judgments are sound and His methods of enacting them are like the tongues of many waters, speaking to each person in their own voice (Ps 29:3-4 ; Je 7:12-15; 10:13; Ez 2:24; 19:10). Eternity has totally encompassed the world (Ha 2:14), and the descent of the heavenly kingdom/New Jerusalem (Re 21:2) is into hearts on a global scale today (Is 40:2,9,13; Je 3:17; 4:14; Zec 14:8; Lu 17:29; Joh 7:38; 14:22-23; 2Co 6:16; Ga 4:6; Ep 3:17; 1Jo 4:13). Therefore, everything endures beyond AD70 except (apparently) God’s toleration of animal sacrifices in His name at Jerusalem.
Any Unique Characteristics of View: Amplification of Preterist Fulfillment
The idealist method of interpretation is a hermeneutical super-structure which is best applied to the preterist view, in that it offers present truth regarding the fulfillment of historical typology which has come to pass. The greater benefit, however, is the systematic explanation of kingdom life and personal eschatology. Awareness of the kingdom’s inner workings tremendously assists believers in the sojourn. Enemies of the Gospel are likewise to be made aware of their unchangeable fate outside of the saving grace of Jesus Christ. The chronological method of preterism is critical to understanding the fulfillment of the biblical types and shadows. However, these types and shadows must be seen in relation to Jesus Christ consistently to avoid idolatry. The same hermeneutical results can also be achieved by modifying Futurism and Historicism similarly. By focusing on the eternal unseen things as being of primary prophetic significance, the Christocentric Eternalism found in preterist idealism can recover the extreme elements of each and every theology. Full preterism has the most to gain by systematizing types, as that approach will remove its stain of heterodoxy.
Nature and Time of Parousia: Circa A.D. 70 – a coming of Jesus “on the clouds” in a day-of-the-Lord, age-ending judgment. Not a visible appearance of Jesus in keeping with several, similar, and precedent-setting comings of Deity in the Old Testament.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: Biblically, resurrection is a multi-faceted reality. A.D. 30, spiritual resurrection with Christ and bodily resurrections – Jesus’ bodily resurrection and the bodily resurrection of the rest of the firstfruits group (Matt. 27:51-53) in keeping with harvest typology. Circa A.D. 70-73 “on the last day” the rest of the dead ones, the harvest, souls taken out of the hadean realm, bypassing earth, taken to heaven, undergoing individual judgment (Heb. 9:28), and given their individual “spiritual body” (1 Cor. 15:44). From then on, this facet is individually applied following physical death. Also I recognize that the CBV (Corporate Body View) has validity, but should have a tertiary rank.
Nature and time of the Gathering/Rapture Spiritual resurrection – A.D. 30 and onward. No physical removals from planet earth, circa A.D. 70 or ever.
Nature and Time of Millennium: A.D 26-66 – a special time of reigning with Christ during a symbolic time period for a specific purpose—the completion of God’s plan of redemption. Both its front and back ends were marked by two resurrections (see above). I devote chapter to this exposition and comparison with other millennial views in my upcoming book: A Once Mighty Faith: Reclaiming the central teaching of Jesus, reengaging the miraculous.
Is Salvation On-Going or not? Absolutely.
What Continues Today? (Synthesis Eschatology view) The everlasting and ever-increasing kingdom, Christ’s many comings for many different purposes, individual salvations, multi-faceted resurrections, multi-faceted judgments, and an active, involved, and glorified Christ with his creation as revealed in the post-fulfillment and ongoing relevance of the Book of Revelation (see my Preterist-Idealist View).
What Continues Today? (Preterist-Idealist view) This view applies only to the fulfillment and ongoing relevance of the prophecy of the Book of Revelation. For my view on the whole field of eschatology, see “John Noē’s View – Synthesis Eschatology.” First, this view understands that Revelation’s entire prophecy was fulfilled in the events of circa A.D. 70 with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. Second, this entire prophecy has been ongoing and totally relevant in its timeless and universal applications ever since.
The exegetical basis for extrapolating its relevance beyond its eschatological fulfillment is found in the middle of the unfolding apocalyptic drama in a drastic and dynamic instruction given to John that is either ignored or downplayed by most commentators. In Revelation chapter 10, the mighty angel of the Lord instructs John to eat the scroll (Rev. 10:9b). This is the same sealed scroll handed to the Lamb for Him to open in Revelation chapter 5. Why was he told to perform such a graphic and grotesque act? (Have you eaten any good books lately?)
Let’s not forget that this instruction is contained in a book filled with signs and symbols. The reason is, as we shall see, God did not intend the prophetic message in this scroll (the Book of Revelation) to be limited to one particular time period and one particular people, i.e., for John’s original audience, the seven churches and the Christians of that 1st century alone. Fact is, the physical act of eating and ingesting something always transforms it. And so the whole of the prophecy of the Book of Revelation is thusly transformed.
Immediately after John ate the scroll, he was commanded to regurgitate it, if you will; but this time the whole of Revelation’s prophecy is redirected to a different audience. The angel told him, “You must prophesy again about/before many peoples, nations, languages, and kings” (Rev. 10:11). When you couple this statement with the angel’s later instructions to John, “do not seal up the words of the prophecy of this book, because the time is at hand” (Rev. 22:10), it should soon become clear that the Revelation’s prophecy was not exhausted in its circa A.D. 70 fulfillment. Its relevance was thereby broadened from its primary fulfillment audience (the seven churches) and refocused to a different and universal audience.
Unique Characteristics of View (Synthesis Eschatology view): Presents a solution of synthesis for the divisive and conflicting field of eschatology—discarding the weaknesses of the four major views (in order of their prominence: dispensational premillennialism, amillennialism, postmillennialism, and preterism), keeping their strengths, and synthesizing the strengths into one meaningful, coherent, and cogent view that is more Christ-honoring, Scripture-authenticating, and faith-validating than any one view in and of itself.
Unique Characteristics of View (Preterist-Idealist view): For more insights, see: John Noē “An Exegetical Basis for a Preterist-Idealist Understanding of the Book of Revelation,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Dec. 2006): 766-796. This published theological paper is posted on PRI’s website: www.prophecyrefi.org. Click on “About” and “Preterist-Idealist Academic Journal Article.” Also see: John Noē, The Greater Jesus: His glorious unveiling. This book applies this understanding to many of Revelation’s prophecies.
Temporary Ekklesia Theory
(TET) (Jack Pelham)
The Temporary Ekklesia Theory holds that Jesus’ ekklesia (often translated as “church”) was never meant to be a perpetual body on the earth, but was only on Earth from approximately 30AD to 70AD, during the transition between the former age and the current age. The faithful among the Christians were all raised to Heaven in 70AD and have been joined ever since by the righteous when they die.
Nature and Time of Parousia: The TET holds that “parousia” should be interpreted as “coming” and not as some perpetual and invisible “presence” of Jesus on the Earth. Jesus returned quite literally to destroy Satan and his angels, to put an end to “Death and Hades”, to carry out judgment against unfaithful Israel, and to take back to heaven with him the faithful among the living and the dead. After this, he left. He is not holding court on the Earth at this time, does not have an ekklesia on the Earth, and has no sort of spiritual connection to believers on Earth.
Nature and Time of Resurrection: TET places the First Resurrection at Matthew 27:50ff, and equates this with Ezekiel’s “Dry Bones” prophecy of Ezekiel 37. In the First Resurrection, “the whole house of Israel” (all her faithful dead) were raised from wherever they were interred. Their literal human remains were raised from the graves and their literal bodies were reconstituted and reunited with their spirits. They appeared to many and were taken up with Jesus when he ascended in Acts 1. The Second Resurrection happened in 70 AD when “the rest of the dead” were raised and Sheol/Hades was emptied out and made obsolete. The Second Resurrection was a general resurrection, and not intended as a sign like the First was. It did not involve reconstituting the bodies of the dead, but only involved the freeing of their spirits from Sheol/Hades. Since then, people go directly to meet God upon death, where their eternal destiny is decided.
Nature and Time of the Gathering/Rapture: As per 1 Thessalonians 4, the living believers whom Christ found worthy were gathered from the Earth and taken to Heaven in 70AD. Their “earthly bodies” were transformed into “heavenly bodies” and they were gathered together with the dead in Christ (who had been raised from Sheol/Hades just prior to this).
Nature and Time of the Millennium: “THOUSAND YEARS”
TET sees the “thousand years” as a metaphor for an undisclosed period of time, also connoting the idea of completeness. In TET, the “thousand years” turns out to be about 40 literal years, ranging from the day Jesus was resurrected with “the whole house of Israel” until the day that he took the living ekklesia (the called-out ones) to the place to which they had been “called out”–to Heaven in 70 AD.
Is Salvation Ongoing Today? The TET holds that the righteous still get to go to Heaven, even today, where they join “the spirits of the righteous made perfect” (Hebrews 12:23). The gates of the Holy City (Heaven) are never shut (Revelation 21:25), and God is still accepting those humans whom he deems worthy. After death, each person gives an account to God “for what he has done while in the body, whether good or bad”. (2 Corinthians 5:10)
Universalism? TET is not compatible with the theory every human is now granted eternal life after death.
What Continues Today? Jesus’ ekklesia continues today, but it is in Heaven, and not on the Earth. People still join it today after having lived righteously on the Earth. TET holds that many of the major elements of Christianity were only temporary. In TET, there is no earthly ekklesia today, nor any apostles, evangelists, elders, pastors, or teachers. There are no spiritual gifts, nor miracles, nor any indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Nor are there any angels on the Earth, whether good or bad—and this includes Satan. Also gone are the evil spirits. Baptism is obsolete, as is the Lord’s Supper. The Great Commission passed away with the exit of the apostles. Sealed up are all prophecy and visions. What remains is the new order of things—an Earth that is not in submission to angels (Hebrews 2:5), and a Heaven that is now home to all the righteous humans who have ever lived on the Earth before us. We are now free, without any interference or abuse from supernatural powers, to live as righteously as we care to learn to live.
Unique Characteristics of View TET seeks to avoid the pitfalls of other theories that tend to blur or ignore some of the information found in the scriptures. Rather than to gloss over, to hand-wave, and to oversimplify, TET seeks to ask all the questions and find as many of the answers as possible, through textual evidence, extra-biblical historical evidence, and the rational/honest/responsible use of logic. The most unique aspects of TET are probably these:
- Jesus’ ekklesia was not meant to be a perpetual body on the Earth. There is not to be found on this Earth any such ekklesia as the one Jesus founded. If there were, we’d be able to find it.
- No church today is authorized by God, nor supported by him in any way.
- “Kingdom” does not equal “church”, and “church” does not equal “kingdom”.
- In the TET, Both the First and Second resurrections (Revelation 20:4-6) are clearly identified (~30 AD, and 70 AD, respectively), whereas some other theories are vague at best regarding the resurrections.
- TET directly and fully addresses two particular questions that practically every other eschatological theory wishes (or needs) to avoid:
- “What, exactly, has changed in the experience of the believer from the middle of the First Century until now?”
- “What, exactly, was supposed to change in the experience of the believer from the middle of the First Century until now, according to the scriptures?”
- There are no spiritual gifts today as they are not necessary for our situation.