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Ambrose, Pseudo
Baruch, Pseudo
Chrysostom, Pseudo
Clement, Alexandria
Clement, Rome
Clement, Pseudo
King Jesus
Apostle John
Justin Martyr
Apostle Paul
Apostle Peter
Maurus Rabanus
St. Symeon

(Minor Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Joseph Addison
Oswald T. Allis
Thomas Aquinas
Karl Auberlen
Albert Barnes
Karl Barth
G.K. Beale
John Bengel
Wilhelm Bousset
John A. Broadus

David Brown
"Haddington Brown"
F.F. Bruce

Augustin Calmut
John Calvin
B.H. Carroll
Johannes Cocceius
Vern Crisler
Thomas Dekker
Wilhelm De Wette
Philip Doddridge
Isaak Dorner
Dutch Annotators
Alfred Edersheim
Jonathan Edwards

E.B. Elliott
Heinrich Ewald
Patrick Fairbairn
Js. Farquharson
A.R. Fausset
Robert Fleming
Hermann Gebhardt
Geneva Bible
Charles Homer Giblin
John Gill
William Gilpin
W.B. Godbey
Ezra Gould
Hank Hanegraaff
Matthew Henry
G.A. Henty
George Holford
Johann von Hug
William Hurte
J, F, and Brown
B.W. Johnson
John Jortin
Benjamin Keach
K.F. Keil
Henry Kett
Richard Knatchbull
Johann Lange

Cornelius Lapide
Nathaniel Lardner
Jean Le Clerc
Peter Leithart
Jack P. Lewis
Abiel Livermore
John Locke
Martin Luther

James MacDonald
James MacKnight
Dave MacPherson
Keith Mathison
Philip Mauro
Thomas Manton
Heinrich Meyer
J.D. Michaelis
Johann Neander
Sir Isaac Newton
Thomas Newton
Stafford North
Dr. John Owen
 Blaise Pascal
William W. Patton
Arthur Pink

Thomas Pyle
Maurus Rabanus
St. Remigius

Anne Rice
Kim Riddlebarger
J.C. Robertson
Edward Robinson
Andrew Sandlin
Johann Schabalie
Philip Schaff
Thomas Scott
C.J. Seraiah
Daniel Smith
Dr. John Smith
C.H. Spurgeon

Rudolph E. Stier
A.H. Strong
St. Symeon
Friedrich Tholuck
George Townsend
James Ussher
Wm. Warburton
Benjamin Warfield

Noah Webster
John Wesley
B.F. Westcott
William Whiston
Herman Witsius
N.T. Wright

John Wycliffe
Richard Wynne
C.F.J. Zullig

(Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

Firmin Abauzit
Jay Adams
Luis Alcazar
Greg Bahnsen
Beausobre, L'Enfant
Jacques Bousset
John L. Bray
David Brewster
Dr. John Brown
Thomas Brown
Newcombe Cappe
David Chilton
Adam Clarke

Henry Cowles
Ephraim Currier
R.W. Dale
Gary DeMar
P.S. Desprez
Johann Eichhorn
Heneage Elsley
F.W. Farrar
Samuel Frost
Kenneth Gentry
Steve Gregg
Hugo Grotius
Francis X. Gumerlock
Henry Hammond
Friedrich Hartwig
Adolph Hausrath
Thomas Hayne
J.G. Herder
Timothy Kenrick
J. Marcellus Kik
Samuel Lee
Peter Leithart
John Lightfoot
Benjamin Marshall
F.D. Maurice
Marion Morris
Ovid Need, Jr
Wm. Newcombe
N.A. Nisbett
Gary North
Randall Otto
Zachary Pearce
Andrew Perriman
Beilby Porteus
Ernst Renan
Gregory Sharpe
Fr. Spadafora
R.C. Sproul
Moses Stuart
Milton S. Terry
Herbert Thorndike
C. Vanderwaal
Foy Wallace
Israel P. Warren
Chas Wellbeloved
J.J. Wetstein
Richard Weymouth
Daniel Whitby
George Wilkins
E.P. Woodward

(Virtually No Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 & Revelation in 1st C. - Types Only ; Also Included are "Higher Critics" Not Associated With Any Particular Eschatology)

Henry Alford
G.C. Berkower
Alan Patrick Boyd
John Bradford
Wm. Burkitt
George Caird
Conybeare/ Howson
John Crossan
John N. Darby
C.H. Dodd
E.B. Elliott
G.S. Faber
Jerry Falwell
Charles G. Finney
J.P. Green Sr.
Murray Harris
Thomas Ice

Benjamin Jowett
John N.D. Kelly

Hal Lindsey
John MacArthur
William Miller
Robert Mounce

Eduard Reuss

J.A.T. Robinson
George Rosenmuller
D.S. Russell
George Sandison
C.I. Scofield
Dr. John Smith

Norman Snaith
Thomas Torrance
Jack/Rex VanImpe
John Walvoord

Quakers : George Fox | Margaret Fell (Fox) | Isaac Penington


George B. Caird
(1917- 1984)

Oxford Professor of N.T. Wright

" All, or almost all, of the language used by the Bible to refer to God is metaphor. "

The Gospel of St. Luke (1963) | Jesus and the Jewish Nation (1965)  | The Language and Imagery of the Bible (1980) | New Testament Theology (1994) | Revelation of John (1966)

(On The Significance of A.D.70)
"Jesus was called by God to be the agent of his purpose, and he himself had been sent to bring about that reformation without which Israel could not fulfill her national destiny.  If the nation, so far from accepting that calling, rejected God's messenger and persecuted those who responded to his preaching, how could the assertion of God's sovereignty fail to include an open demonstration that Jesus was right and the nation was wrong?  How could it fail to include the vindication of the persecuted and the cause they lived and died for?" (Jesus and the Jewish Nation, 20f.)

(On Mark 13:5-37 and the "Son of Man")
"Here, as in the book of Daniel, the coming of the Son of Man on the clouds of heaven was never conceived as a primitive form of space travel, but as a symbol for a mighty reversal of fortunes within history and at the national level.  How odd of Mark, say the critics, to append to a question about a historical crisis a discourse which is an answer to a question about an eschatological crisis!   But supposing Mark was right!  Supposing the prediction of the coming of the Son of Man on the clouds of heaven really was an answer to the disciples' question about the date of the fall of Jerusalem!  It is indeed credible that Jesus, the heir to the linguistic and theological riches of the prophets, and himself a greater theologian and master of imagery than them all, should ever have turned their symbols into flat and literal prose?" (Jesus and the Jewish Nation, 20-22)

(On Mark 13:14-19)
"more useful to a refugee from military invasion than to a man caught unawares by the last trumpet." (Jesus and the Jewish Nation, 21)

(On Revelation 6:16-17)
ôLuke records a saying of Jesus, in which he quotes Hosea x. 8, applying the words not to some ultimate cosmic catastrophe but to the destruction of Jerusalem by Roman armies (Luke xxiii. 28-31)." (The Revelation of St. John, p. 90)

(On The Significance of Gospel Events)
"not only in theological truth but in historic fact, the one bore the sins of the many, confident that in him the whole Jewish nation was being nailed to the cross, only to come to life again in a better resurrection." (Jesus and the Jewish Nation, 22)

"the disciples were not evangelistic preachers sent out to save individual souls for some unearthly paradise.  They were couriers proclaiming a national emergency and conducting a referendum on a question of national survival." (New Testament Theology, 361)

(On Symbolism/Allegory)
"The first readers were almost certainly well versed in the sort of symbolic language and imagery in which the book is written. Whether they had formerly been Jews or pagans, they would read the language of myth as fluently as any modern reader of the daily papers reads the conventional symbols of a political cartoon. Much of this language we can reconstruct for ourselves from the Old Testament and Jewish apocalyptic writings on the one hand and from Greek and Roman literature, inscriptions, and coinage on the other (Black's New Testament Commentaries, "A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John the Divine," 2nd edition, p. 6)." 

"Our difficulties begin when we try to decide how far to take this picture language literally and how far to take it figuratively. When John echoes the Roman legend that the dead Nero was about to return, how literally does he mean it? Does he believe that Nero was not in fact dead, or that he would be resurrected, or that another paranoiac would come to fill his empty shoes? (Black's New Testament Commentaries, "A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John the Divine," 2nd edition. p. 7)."

"Misleading to say that in Revelation the monster is Rome, and still more misleading to say that it is ruler worship. The monster is both an older and a newer phenomenon than Caesar, and the great city is more ancient and more modern than Rome" (Black's New Testament Commentaries, "A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John the Divine," 2nd edition, p. xii)." 

"John uses his allusions not as a code in which each symbol requires separate and exact translation, but rather for their evocative and emotive power. This is not photographic art. His aim is to set the echoes of memory and association ringing (Black's New Testament Commentaries, "A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John the Divine," 2nd edition, p. 26)." (Revelation: Book of Cosmic Symbols)


(On Relations with the Roman Catholic Church) 
"Soon after Swansea, Dr Douglas Horton completed his four-volume "Vatican Diary", one of the most detailed and lively records of the second Vatican council. This rounded off. the unique service which Dr Horton rendered as principal ICC observer at Vatican II. The Swansea assembly had received from Dr George B Caird his first impressions of the Vatican Council as another of our observers. The address which he then gave, subsequently amplified in his Congregational Lectures, has since been published by the Oxford University Press. Dr Caird has played a significant role in the exploratory talks between WARC and the secretariat for promoting Christian unity of the Roman Catholic Church; in the official Reformed-Roman Catholic dialogue to which both the Vatican and the Beirut joint WARC/ICC executive committee agreed, Dr Caird is a permanent member of the Alliance delegation. At the first of a series of five meetings, held in Rome last April, he presented a study paper on "The relation between Christ and the church in the New Testament". The ICC are profoundly grateful to Dr Caird for his invaluable contribution to these conversations, as well as for the wise counsel he has given our Council in all matters related to Roman Catholicism." (ICCM)

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05 Jan 2004


caird 1994: 150

09 Feb 2004


The proposals for solving the riddle on the number of the beast (666) at Revelation l3:l8 are legion. Here is one more: NEBEKEDNESSER, that is, the Greek letters: Nu (50) + Eta (8) + Beta (2) + Kappa (20) + Eta (8) + Delta (4) + Nu (50) + Eta (8) + Sigma (200) + Sigma (200) + Eta (8) + Rho (l00) = 666. The variant numbers are: 606, 6l6, 646, 665, 747. For 606, BAEL MARDUK / My Lord Marduk; for 6l6, KAISAR THEOS / Lord God; for 646, AMIL MARDUK / Man Of Marduk; for 665, a transliterization of the Greek word for beast (therion) into Hebrew, namely, Tav (400) + Resh (200) + He (5) + Yod (l0) + Nun (50) = 665; for 747, APAOL MARDUK / Heir Of Marduk. My reasons for these solutions are: The Jewish House Of Jesus (See SEPTUAGINT, Ezra 2:36) was captive/exiled in 6th century b.c. Babylon; The Book of Daniel 4:l6 mentions that God gave Nebuchadnezzer the mind of a beast; The 2nd century b.c. apocryphal word titled JUDITH refers to Nebuchadnezzer as "Lord of the whole world," "Who is God except Nebuchadnezzer," "All nations shall call upon Nebuchadnezzer as God"; Midrash Rabbah Ecclesiastes mentions that the Roman emperor Trajan was "a descendant of Nebuchadnezzer"; The lst century a.d. New Testament letter titled First Peter at 5:l3 mentions: "Greetings from her who dwells in Babylon"; The spelling for Nebuchadnezzer in THE SEPTUAGINT dates from the 2nd century b.c. at the earliest while the Jewish House Of Jesus was in 6th century b.c. Babylon!! [Walter C. Cambra, A.A.,B.A.,B.A.,M.A.,(FRC)(MAFA)]


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