(Minor Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation
Oswald T. Allis
John A. Broadus
Wilhelm De Wette
Charles Homer Giblin
Johann von Hug
J, F, and Brown
Jean Le Clerc
Jack P. Lewis
Sir Isaac Newton
Dr. John Owen
William W. Patton
Rudolph E. Stier
(Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation
John L. Bray
Dr. John Brown
Francis X. Gumerlock
J. Marcellus Kik
Ovid Need, Jr
Milton S. Terry
(Virtually No Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 & Revelation in 1st
C. - Types Only ; Also Included are "Higher Critics" Not Associated With Any
Alan Patrick Boyd
John N. Darby
Charles G. Finney
J.P. Green Sr.
John N.D. Kelly
Dr. John Smith
George Fox |
Margaret Fell (Fox) |
PRETERIST UNIVERSALISM |
MODERN PRETERISM |
St. Thomas Aquinas
Angelic Doctor and Prince of Scholastics | Born at Rocca Secca in the Kingdom of Naples, 1225/27 | Died at Fossa Nuova, 7 March, 1274 | Canonised by Pope John XXII 49 Years after Death
"There is nothing on this earth more to be prized than true friendship."
GOLDEN CHAIN | ON THE ETERNITY OF THE WORLD
From St. Thomas Aquinas' hand (with accent marks)
|"To take something away from the perfection of the creature is to abstract from the perfection of the creative power itself."||"It is requisite for the relaxation of the mind that we make use, from time to time, of playful deeds and jokes."|
"The signs of which we read in the
gospels, as Augustine says, writing to Hesychius about the end of the world,
refer not only to Christ's coming to judgment, but also to the time of the
sack of Jerusalem, and to the coming of Christ in ceaselessly visiting His
Church. So that, perhaps, if we consider them carefully, we shall find that
none of them refers to the coming advent, as he remarks: because these signs
that are mentioned in the gospels, such as wars, fears, and so forth, have
been from the beginning of the human race" (Summa Theologica,
Supplement Question 73, Article 1)
Significance of A.D. 70)
" after the founding of the Church of Christ, Judaea was to be punished for her treachery, the Lord fitly, after praising the devotedness of the Church in the person of the poor widow, goes out of the temple, and foretold its coming ruin, and the contempt in which the buildings now so wonderful were soon to be held." (Golden Chain,
(On Mark 13:2)
"Now some may endeavour to prove that Christ's words were false, by saying that many ruins were left, but this is not at all the point; for though some ruins had been left, still at the consummation of all things one stone shall not be left upon another. Besides it is related, that Aelius Adrian overturned [p. 255] the city and the temple from the foundation, so that the word of the Lord here spoken was fulfilled."
(On Mark 13:9)
"He says "kings and rulers," as, for instance, Agrippa, Nero and Herod. Again, His saying, "for My sake," gave them no small consolation, in that they were about to suffer for His sake. "For a testimony against them," means, as a judgment beforehand against them, that they might be inexcusable, in that though the Apostles were labouring for the truth, they would not join themselves to it. Then, that they might not think that their preaching should be impeded by troubles and dangers, He adds: "And the Gospel must first be published among all nations." (Golden Chain, in loc.)
"Considered on the part of their efficiency, which is dependent on the
Divine power, both Christ's death and His Resurrection are the cause both of
the destruction of death and of the renewal of life: but considered as
exemplar causes, Christ's death---by which He withdrew from mortal life---is
the cause of the destruction of our death; while His Resurrection, whereby
He inaugurated immortal life, is the cause of the repairing of our life." (Source)
"Rm. 6:6, "that the body of sin may be
destroyed," a gloss says: "The effect of Baptism is that the old man is
crucified, and the body of sin destroyed, not as though the living flesh of
man were delivered by the destruction of that concupiscence with which it
has been bespattered from its birth; but that it may not hurt him, when
dead, though it was in him when he was born." Therefore for the same reason
neither are the other penalties taken away by Baptism." (Source)
"Whether the rewards assigned to the beatitudes refer to this life?
Objection 1: It would seem that the rewards assigned to the beatitudes do
not refer to this life. Because some are said to be happy because they hope
for a reward, as stated above (Article ). Now the object of hope is
future happiness. Therefore these rewards refer to the life to come.
Objection 2: Further, certain punishments are set down in opposition to
the beatitudes, Lk. 6:25, where we read: "Woe to you that are filled; for
you shall hunger. Woe to you that now laugh, for you shall mourn and weep."
Now these punishments do not refer to this life, because frequently men are
not punished in this life, according to Job 21:13: "They spend their days in
wealth." Therefore neither do the rewards of the beatitudes refer to this
Objection 3: Further, the kingdom of heaven which is set down as the
reward of poverty is the happiness of heaven, as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei
xix) [*Cf. De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 1]. Again, abundant fullness is not to
be had save in the life to come, according to Ps. 16:15: "I shall be filled
[Douay: 'satisfied'] when Thy glory shall appear." Again, it is only in the
future life that we shall see God, and that our Divine sonship will be made
manifest, according to 1 Jn. 3:2: "We are now the sons of God; and it hath
not yet appeared what we shall be. We know that, when He shall appear, we
shall be like to Him, because we shall see Him as He is." Therefore these
rewards refer to the future life.
On the contrary, Augustine says (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4): "These
promises can be fulfilled in this life, as we believe them to have been
fulfilled in the apostles. For no words can express that complete change
into the likeness even of an angel, which is promised to us after this
I answer that, Expounders of Holy Writ are not agreed in speaking of
these rewards. For some, with Ambrose (Super Luc. v), hold that all these
rewards refer to the life to come; while Augustine (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i,
4) holds them to refer to the present life; and Chrysostom in his homilies
(In Matth. xv) says that some refer to the future, and some to the present
In order to make the matter clear we must take note that hope of future
happiness may be in us for two reasons. First, by reason of our having a
preparation for, or a disposition to future happiness; and this is by way of
merit; secondly, by a kind of imperfect inchoation of future happiness in
holy men, even in this life. For it is one thing to hope that the tree will
bear fruit, when the leaves begin to appear, and another, when we see the
first signs of the fruit.
Accordingly, those things which are set down as merits in the beatitudes,
are a kind of preparation for, or disposition to happiness, either perfect
or inchoate: while those that are assigned as rewards, may be either perfect
happiness, so as to refer to the future life, or some beginning of
happiness, such as is found in those who have attained perfection, in which
case they refer to the present life. Because when a man begins to make
progress in the acts of the virtues and gifts, it is to be hoped that he
will arrive at perfection, both as a wayfarer, and as a citizen of the
heavenly kingdom. " Source)
(On Fulfillment of Prophecy)
"Yet because the Old Law was ended by Christ's death, according to His dying
words, "It is consummated" (Jn. 19:30), it may be understood that by His
suffering He fulfilled all the precepts of the Old Law. He fulfilled those
of the moral order which are founded on the precepts of charity, inasmuch as
He suffered both out of love of the Father, according to Jn. 14:31: "That
the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father hath given Me
commandment, so do I: arise, let us go hence"---namely, to the place of His
Passion: and out of love of His neighbor, according to Gal. 2:20: "He loved
me, and delivered Himself up for me." Christ likewise by His Passion
fulfilled the ceremonial precepts of the Law, which are chiefly ordained for
sacrifices and oblations, in so far as all the ancient sacrifices were
figures of that true sacrifice which the dying Christ offered for us. Hence
it is written (Col. 2:16,17): "Let no man judge you in meat or drink, or in
respect of a festival day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbaths, which are
a shadow of things to come, but the body is Christ's," for the reason that
Christ is compared to them as a body is to a shadow. Christ also by His
Passion fulfilled the judicial precepts of the Law, which are chiefly
ordained for making compensation to them who have suffered wrong, since, as
is written Ps. 68:5: He "paid that which" He "took not away," suffering
Himself to be fastened to a tree on account of the apple which man had
plucked from the tree against God's command." (Source)
"Whether Christ should have been circumcised? Objection 1: It would seem
that Christ should not have been circumcised. For on the advent of the
reality, the figure ceases. But circumcision was prescribed to Abraham as a
sign of the covenant concerning his posterity, as may be seen from Gn. 17.
Now this covenant was fulfilled in Christ's birth. Therefore circumcision
should have ceased at once." (Source)
"I answer that, It was fitting that Christ's preaching, whether through
Himself or through His apostles, should be directed at first to the Jews
alone. First, in order to show that by His coming the promises were
fulfilled which had been made to the Jews of old, and not to the Gentiles.
Thus the Apostle says (Rm. 15:8): "I say that Christ . . . was minister of
the circumcision," i.e. the apostle and preacher of the Jews, "for the truth
of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers." (Source)
"Article 10: Whether the same passage of holy scripture can have several senses. Thus we proceed to the tenth point. It seems that the same passage of holy scripture cannot have several senses, namely the historical or literal, the allegorical, the tropological or moral, and the anagogical. Multiple senses in scripture prepare the way for confusion and deception. They also compromise coherent reasoning. From several propositions there results, not an argument, but a collection of fallacies. Sacred scripture, however, should display the truth without any fallacy whatsoever. Thus there should not be several senses in the same passage.
"The scripture which is called 'The Old Testament' has a fourfold meaning, namely history, etiology, analogy and allegory." These four seem inconsistent with the aforementioned. Thus it does not seem fitting that the same passage of sacred scripture should be exposited according to the four aforementioned senses." (Source)
ON THE JEWS
"Whether the Old Law enjoined fitting precepts concerning rulers?
Objection 1: It would seem that the Old Law made unfitting precepts
concerning rulers. Because, as the Philosopher says (Polit. iii, 4), "the
ordering of the people depends mostly on the chief ruler." But the Law
contains no precept relating to the institution of the chief ruler; and yet
we find therein prescriptions concerning the inferior rulers: firstly (Ex.
18:21): "Provide out of all the people wise [Vulg.: 'able'] men," etc.;
again (Num. 11:16): "Gather unto Me seventy men of the ancients of Israel";
and again (Dt. 1:13): "Let Me have from among you wise and understanding
men," etc. Therefore the Law provided insufficiently in regard to the rulers
of the people.
Further, according to Mt. 12:25: "Every kingdom divided against itself
shall be made desolate": a saying which was verified in the Jewish people,
whose destruction was brought about by the division of the kingdom. But the
Law should aim chiefly at things pertaining to the general well- being of
the people. Therefore it should have forbidden the kingdom to be divided
under two kings: nor should this have been introduced even by Divine
authority; as we read of its being introduced by the authority of the
prophet Ahias the Silonite (3 Kgs. 11:29, seqq.). " Source)
Job 21:15, Who is the Almighty, that we should serve him?
This can refer to the Jews who say that Christ is merely human, and not God; Jn 10:33,
because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. And so the Jews, not believing that he was the one promised in the law, declare,
There is no God, namely this one who is preaching to us. And on this account he said,
The fool, for as the eyes of their mind are blind they did not want to accept the wisdom of God; Ps 81:5,
They have not known nor understood. And Wis 2:21, for their own malice blinded them. Or perhaps the sinner is rebuked here."
Daniel 13: "They have turned away their eyes, that they might not look unto heaven." And exactly this was done among the Jews when they said at John 11: "(if we let him alone so, all will believe in him); and the Romans will come and take away our place and nation." (Psalm 13)
"The authority of the preaching: he thundered. Clouds, that is, the apostles, passed, from the Jews to the Nations: Job 37: Clouds spread his light, which go round about. Act 13: You must first speak the word of God; but because etc.. Hail causes much damage to fruits and flowers, and their preaching was like a hail of threatening."
I will unsheath my sw
ord, my hand will kill them. Allegorically it speaks of Christ, who pursues our enemies the Jews, and other sinners, punishing them bodily and spiritually." (Psalm 17)
"Or may it be found in evil, that is may it be known:
by your enemies, that is in the Jews in judgment, when they come to judgment -
Luke 21: They will see the son of man coming etc. And may your right hand, that is your son,
come upon, that is punish, all who hate you."
"Or, they have turned away, because they want to inflict evil menacing them, on others. For a two-fold evil used to threaten the Jews, namely the evil of punishment: and this they tried to cast back upon Christ when they killed him so that they might not incur the might of the Romans. " (Psalm 20)
"Psalm 9: He has humbled him in his own snare, he will turn back to himself and fall, when etc. In such a manner did this happen to the Jews, because they themselves handed Christ over to the gentiles, and afterwards they were handed over to the gentiles." (Psalm 34)
"Since Christ said at the very outset of the preaching of the Gospel: "The kingdom of heaven is at hand" (Mt. 4:17), it is most absurd to say that the Gospel of Christ is not the Gospel of the kingdom. But the preaching of the Gospel of Christ may be understood in two ways. First, as denoting the spreading abroad of the knowledge of Christ: and thus the Gospel was preached throughout the world even at the time of the apostles, as Chrysostom states (Hom. lxxv in Matth.). And in this sense the words that follow---"and then shall the consummation come," refer to the destruction of Jerusalem, of which He was speaking literally." (cite:
MYSTICISM AND ALLEGORY
"Mystically speaking, however, by the ten strings of the psalterium is signified the law of God, which consists in ten commandments, and it is appropriate that it be touched with the hand, that is with good performance, and from above, because these commandments are to be satisfied according to the hope of eternal life, otherwise it would be touched from what is below." (Psalm 2)
"Mystically, by tabernacle the holy Church is designated.
Apocalypse 21: Behold the tabernacle of God is with men. This tabernacle, that is, the Church, was torn from the hands of the Philistines, that is, from demons. And what is said in this psalm pertains to the gifts of the Holy Ghost, through which this tabernacle is perfected.
" (Psalm 28)
"Love takes up where knowledge leaves off."
(Theory: Non-Occurence of Prophecy)
"This Gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world . . . and then shall the consummation come."
But the Gospel of Christ is already preached throughout the whole world: and yet the consummation has not yet come. Therefore the Gospel of Christ is not the Gospel of the kingdom, but another Gospel, that of the Holy Ghost, is to come yet, like unto another Law." (Summa Theologica, vol. 2, 1292)
(Theory: New Covenant Insufficiency)
"P(2a)-Q(106)-A(4)-O(1) — It would seem that the New Law will not last until the end of the world. Because, as the Apostle says (1 Corinthians 13:10), "when that which is perfect is come, that which is in part shall be done away." But the New Law is "in part," since the Apostle says (1 Corinthians 13:9): "We know in part and we prophesy in part." Therefore the New Law is to be done away, and will be succeeded by a more perfect state.
(Summa Theologica, vol. II, p. 1291)
From Summa Theologica:
"Clearly the person who accepts the Church as an infallible guide will believe whatever the Church teaches."
"If forgers and malefactors are put to death by the secular power, there is much more reason for excommunicating and even putting to death one convicted of heresy."
WHAT OTHERS HAVE SAID
John F. McCarthy
St. Thomas reflected on this method and gave a valuable explanation of the four senses in addition to expounding them in his commentaries on the Scriptures. His teaching can serve as the starting point for a more extended and differentiated exposition of this method, beginning with the first big distinction between the "literal" sense and the "spiritual," or "mystical," sense. For St. Thomas, this distinction arises from the fact that the rightly understood meaning of the words themselves of Sacred Scripture pertains to the literal, or historical, sense, while the fact that the things expressed by the words signify other things produces the spiritual sense. Thus, the spiritual sense is understood to be a typical, or figurative, sense which is based upon the literal sense and presupposes it. This basic double sense is possible because God, who is the principal Author of Sacred Scripture, has brought it about that things and events having their own historical meaning are used also to signify other things. But the central thing signified by these prefigurements is Jesus Christ Himself, who as the God-Man is the central focus of the spiritual sense and the subject of an extended symbolism which is known as the Allegory of Christ.
The distinction between the literal and the spiritual senses of Sacred Scripture is analytical, even though spiritual realities are often the primary meaning of a text, because a certain interaction of faith and reason is implied in this division. The original meaning of words can be examined by unaided reason, as can the unfolding of visible happenings, but the spiritual meaning of words and events can be seen only by the light of faith. In Part I, Question I of the Summa Theologiae, St. Thomas points out that revealed teaching is necessary for man (article 1), that this teaching is a science based upon revealed truths that are visible under the light of faith (article 2), and that God is the subject of this science (article 7). Approaching, then, the distinction between the literal and the spiritual senses from an analytical point of view, I would say that the literal sense tends to be exclusively seen by the unaided human reason, while the spiritual sense is penetrated by theological reason aided by the light of faith. Where the text is speaking literally about spiritual realities, and above all about supernatural realities, the unaided reason can see the statement in a flattened and unmeaningful way, but it cannot "understand" the statement. Where the text contains spiritual meanings beneath the literal sense, the unaided reason can see these meanings at best in a flattened and unmeaningful way, while reason enlightened by faith can both see the spiritual meanings in a meaningful way and see the literal meaning in a more complete way - provided that it has the appropriate theological framework at its command.
Looking, then, at sacred teaching as presented by the text of Sacred Scripture, and reasoning along the lines of St. Thomas, we can justifiably say that the inspired writings are necessary, not only because what is contained in them spiritually could not be figured out by man on his own, but also because the poor, fallen reason of man tends away from the spiritual truth and towards his own self-gratification. Men without grace do not want to know the spiritual truth and they endeavor to rub it out where it is written. But men possessed of faith and sanctifying grace will discover the truth and understand it.
. . . St. Thomas answers affirmatively to the question "whether there ought to be distinguished four senses of Sacred Scripture,"34 basing his response upon the authority of St. Augustine of Hippo and of Venerable Bede. St. Augustine observed: "In all the holy books it is behooving to discern the eternal things to be seen there, the deeds that are there narrated, the future things that are predicted, the things that are commanded to be done."35 St. Thomas sees these four things to refer respectively to the anagogical, the historical, the allegorical, and the tropological senses of Sacred Scripture.
St. Thomas also quotes Venerable Bede as saying: "There are four senses of Sacred Scripture: history, which narrates things done; allegory, in which one thing is understood from another; tropology (that is, moral discourse), in which the ordering of habits is treated; and anagogy, by which we are led upward to treat of highest and heavenly things."36 St. Thomas identifies the "historical sense" of Bede with the literal sense presented by the words themselves, and he makes an analytical division of the spiritual sense into allegory, tropology, and anagogy . . .
. . . St. Thomas notes in the first place that things which actually happened can refer to Christ and his members as shadows of the truth, and this is what produces the allegorical sense, while other comparisons, being imaginary rather than real, whether in Sacred Scripture or in other literature, do not stand outside of the literal sense. Hence, the allegorical sense of Sacred Scripture is not imaginary and is not a genre of human inventiveness.
. . . Finally, it might seem that, if these four senses were necessary for Sacred Scripture, each and every part of Sacred Scripture would have to have these four senses, but, as Augustine says in his commentary on Genesis, "in some parts the literal sense alone is to be sought." To this St. Thomas replies that various parts of Scripture have four, three, two, or only one of these senses. Thus, the literal events of the Old Testament can be expounded in the four senses. The things spoken literally of Christ as the Head of the New Testament Church can also be expounded according to the four senses, because the historical Body of Christ can be expounded allegorically of the Mystical Body of Christ, and tropologically of the acts of the faithful to be modelled after the example of Christ, and anagogically inasmuch as Christ is the way to glory that has been shown to us. The things spoken literally of the Church of the New Testament can be expounded in three senses, because they can also be expounded tropologically and anagogically, but not allegorically, except that things mentioned literally regarding the primitive Church may have allegorical meaning regarding the later Church of the New Testament. The things of moral import in the literal sense can be expounded only literally and allegorically. And, finally, the things spoken literally regarding the state of glory cannot be expounded in any other sense." (NEO-PATRISTIC EXEGESIS TO THE RESCUE)
"Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican theologian and philosopher, was born Thomas d'Aquino, the son of a baron, in his family's castle at Roccasecca, in the vicinity of Naples in southern Italy, in 1224 or 1225. At about the age of five, Thomas was placed by his parents in the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. His uncle had been abbot of the monastery, and his family had similar ambitions for Thomas. When Monte Cassino became the scene of a battle between papal and imperial troops, however, Thomas withdrew and enrolled at the University of Naples, one of few where a full range Aristotelian doctrine was studied, in November of 1239, where he stayed until April of 1244. There he came into contact with members of the Dominican order and, against the opposition of his family, became a Dominican friar in late April of 1244. Shortly after, in May of 1244, his family intervened forcibly, having him abducted and detained thereafter at Roccasecca. His mother tried to persuade Thomas for more than a year to give up his membership in the Dominican order. Failing to persuade him, Thomas was allowed to return to his order in July or August of 1245. He then went north to study for his novitiate till 1248, after which he came under the guidance of Albert the Great at Cologne until the Fall of 1252, during which time (1250/51) he was ordained a priest.
From the Fall of 1252 to the Spring of 1259, Thomas taught at the Dominican house of studies in Paris. It was during this time that he lectured on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Between March 3 and June 17 of 1256, he was incepted as a master of theology, and was regent master in theology at Paris until 1259, during which time that he began his
Summa contra gentiles. 1259 found Aquinas leaving Paris for Naples, where he stayed until the Fall of 1261 as head of the Dominican house of studies. From September of that same year to September of 1265, Aquinas was at Orvieto as a lector, where he completed the
Summa contra gentiles. After a time at Rome in 1265 and Viterbo in 1267 (his great work, the
Summa Theologiae was begun in 1266), he took up his second Parisian regency from January of 1269 to 1272. This was followed by his assignment to Naples in 1272 as regent of theology. His writing throughout contains a consistent construction and defense of his system, based on Aristotles', adapting Aristotle to the needs of the 13th century. December 6, 1273 saw the cessation of his writing, after a physical and mental breakdown from years of overwork. While going north to attend the Council of Lyon, Thomas injured his head, fell ill and died in the Cistercian abbey of Fossanova on March 7, 1274. " (cite: )
"Second, it appeals, I believe, to curious, creative minds for whom theological novelty is especially appealing. These individuals rightly grasp the fact of theological and dogmatic development (who but the most obscurantist would deny it?), but they do not believe that this development may occur legitimately only within the matrix of orthodox Christianity. Any other theological and dogmatic development, whatever it may be, is not Christian. Christianity, while a highly traditional and historically anchored Faith, does carry in its bosom at any one time a number of gifted (or at least curious) individuals who are not quite satisfied with the doctrinal formulations of their time. Some simply wish to make the Faith relevant to their contemporary situation; and if they do this within the context of orthodoxy, they may just break ground in advancing the kingdom (Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, Kuyper, and Van Til come immediately to mind). Others are merely arrogant, setting their own imagination against the entire testimony of the saints for 1700 years. To those for whom the constraints of orthodoxy Christianity are uncomfortably restrictive, their own gifted (or, in some cases, ignorant) minds furnish a new and exciting (and heretical and damnable) alternative. I know of no devotee of this heresy, not one, who is deeply schooled in the history of the church or its theology. They may be exegetes or theologians (though there are frankly few of these), but they are not historians. Historians know better. So, for that matter, do all orthodox Christians." (The Braying of Heretics)
THOMAS AQUINAS ON WOMEN
On how a woman is born to be a woman
“Objection: It can be argued that woman should not have formed part of the world as it was initially created. For Aristotle says that a female is an occasioned male. But it would be wrong for something occasioned and [hence] deficient to be part of the initial creation. Therefore woman should not have been a part of that world.” (Thomas answers that the female is defective as a particular event; not as part of the general scheme of things).
Summa Theologica, 1, qu. 92, art 1, ob. 1
Reply: “Vis-a-vis [seen as caused by] the natura particularis
[i.e., the action of the male semen], a female is deficient and unintentionally caused. For the active power of the semen always seeks to produce a thing completely like itself, something male. So if a female is produced, this must be because the semen is weak or because the material [provided by the female parent] is unsuitable, or because of the action of some external factor such as the winds from the south which make the atmosphere humid. But vis-a-vis [seen as caused by]
natura universalis [general Nature] the female is not accidentally caused but is intended by Nature for the work of generation. Now the intentions of Nature come from God, who is its author. This is why, when he created Nature, he made not only the male but also the female”
Summa Theologica, 1, qu. 92, art 1, ad 1.
Note. Thomas Aquinas followed Aristotle in attributing the conception of a woman to a defect of a particular seed. The male
semen intends to produce a complete human being, a man, but at times it does not succeed and produces a woman. A woman is, therefore, a
mas occasionatus, a failed male. Thomas stresses that this does not imply that women were not part of God's grand scheme of creation. However, a female is not perfect.
‘According to the medicine of his century, which, of course, Thomas did not correct, woman was an incomplete man, a half-baked male, whose unfinished characteristics come about through some weakness in the parents, some disposition in the human material or some extrinsic cause such as, for example, a strong south wind at the time of conception. Nevertheless Thomas thinks it is unjust to consider woman a cosmic accident; she was not an accident, this creature was made on purpose, deliberately planned by God.’ Walter Farrell, O.P.,
A Companion to the Summa, I ch. 12. Read also M. Nolan, ‘The Defective Male: What Aquinas Really Said’,
As regards generation by coition, there are, in the present state of life, two things to be considered. One, which comes from nature, is the union of man and woman; for in every act of generation there is an active and a passive principle. Wherefore, since
wherever there is distinction of sex, the active principle is male and the passive is female; the order of nature demands that for the purpose of generation there should be concurrence of male and female. The second thing to be observed is a certain deformity of excessive concupiscence, which in the state of innocence would not have existed, when the lower powers were entirely subject to reason.
Summa Theologica, I qu. 98, art 1.
Now the more powerful an agent, the greater scope its action has: for instance, the hotter a body, the greater the distance to which its heat carries. Therefore bodies not endowed with life, which are the lowest in the order of nature, generate their like, not through some medium, but by themselves; thus fire by itself generates fire. But living bodies, as being more powerful, act so as to generate their like, both without and with a medium. Without a medium--in the work of nutrition, in which flesh generates flesh: with a medium--in the act of generation, because the semen of the animal or plant derives a certain active force from the soul of the generator, just as the instrument derives a certain motive power from the principal agent. And as it matters not whether we say that something is moved by the instrument or by the principal agent, so neither does it matter whether we say that the soul of the generated is caused by the soul of the generator, or by some seminal power derived therefrom.
Summa Theologica II, q. 18, art. 1.
This active force which is in the semen, and which is derived from the soul of the generator, is, as it were, a certain movement of this soul itself: nor is it the soul or a part of the soul, save virtually; thus the form of a bed is not in the saw or the axe, but a certain movement towards that form. Consequently there is no need for this active force to have an actual organ; but it is based on the (vital) spirit in the semen which is frothy, as is attested by its whiteness. In which spirit, moreover, there is a certain heat derived from the power of the heavenly bodies, by virtue of which the inferior bodies also act towards the production of the species as stated above (115, 3, ad 2). And since in this (vital) spirit the power of the soul is concurrent with the power of a heavenly body, it has been said that "man and the sun generate man."
Summa Theologica II, q. 18, art. 1, ad 3.
"In perfect animals, generated by coition, the active force is in the semen of the male, as the Philosopher says (De Gener. Animal. ii, 3); but the foetal matter is provided by the female. . . . And after the sensitive soul, by the power of the active principle in the semen, has been produced in one of the principal parts of the thing generated, then it is that the sensitive soul of the offspring [=the foetus] begins to work towards the perfection of its own body, by nourishment and growth." (Summa Theologica II, q. 18, art. 1, ad 4.)
"We must not suppose, what some have thought, that female sex has no place in the bodies of the risen Saints. For since resurrection means the reparation of the defects of nature, nothing of what makes for the perfection of nature will be withdrawn from the bodies of the risen. Now among other organs that belong to the integrity of the human body are those which minister to generation as well in male as in female. These organs therefore will rise again in both . . . Neither is the weakness of the female sex inconsistent with the perfection of the resurrection. Such weakness is no departure from nature, but is intended by nature. This natural differentiation will argue the thoroughgoing perfection of nature, and commend the divine wisdom that arranges creation in diversity of ranks and orders." (Summa contra Gentiles, IV, qu. 88.) (cite: womanpriests.org)
"As regards the individual nature, woman is defective and misbegotten, for the active power of the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex; while the production of a woman comes from defect in the active power."
THOMAS AQUINAS ON
Article 10: Whether the same passage of holy scripture can have several senses.
Thus we proceed to the tenth point. It seems that the same passage of holy scripture cannot have several senses, namely the historical or literal, the allegorical, the tropological or moral, and the anagogical. Multiple senses in scripture prepare the way for confusion and deception. They also compromise coherent reasoning. From several propositions there results, not an argument, but a collection of fallacies. Sacred scripture, however, should display the truth without any fallacy whatsoever. Thus there should not be several senses in the same passage.
Furthermore, Augustine says, "The scripture which is called 'The Old Testament' has a fourfold meaning, namely history, etiology, analogy and allegory." These four seem inconsistent with the aforementioned. Thus it does not seem fitting that the same passage of sacred scripture should be exposited according to the four aforementioned senses.
Furthermore, there is also a parabolic sense, which does not seem to be included among these four senses.
But on the contrary Gregory says, "Sacred scripture transcends all other sciences in the manner of its expression, because in one and the same statement, while narrating an event, it proclaims a mystery."
Response: It must be said that the author of sacred scripture is God, who has the power not only to use words in expressing himself - men can do that much - but of using things as well. Thus, since words signify something in any science, this science is special in that not only the words but the things signified by the words signify something. The primary signification, through which words signify things, is called the literal or historical sense. That
signification whereby things signified by words have themselves also a signification is called the spiritual sense, which is based on the literal, and presupposes it. Now this spiritual sense has a threefold division.
[This phrase in italics was missing in the base file for this texts, and has been supplied from the Dominican Fathers' translation.]
This spiritual sense is itself divided in a threefold way. Paul says, "The Old Law is a figure of the New Law" (Heb. 7:19), and the New Law is, as Dionysius says, "a figure of the glory to come." Moreover, in the New Law the things that are done are signs of what we ourselves should do.
Thus, insofar as things in the Old Law signify things in the New Law, we have the allegorical sense. Insofar as things done by Christ or by those who prefigure Christ are signs of what we ourselves should do, we have the moral sense. Insofar as they signify what is involved in eternal glory, we have the anagogical sense.
Because the literal sense is what the author intends, and because the author of sacred scripture is God who contains all things within his understanding, there is nothing impossible about even the literal sense containing several meanings, as Augustine suggests.
To the first argument, therefore, it must be said that manifold senses do not lead to equivocation or to any other type of ambiguity, for, as was just said, theses senses are not multiplied in such a way that a single word signifies several things, but rather because the things signified by these words can be signs of still other things. Thus no confusion follows from the reading of sacred scripture, for all other senses are founded on the literal sense. From it alone arguments can be drawn, and not from what is said allegorically, as Augustine explains in his letter against Vincent the Donatist. Nor does this fact detract in any way from sacred scripture, for nothing necessary to the faith is said in a spiritual sense which is not explicitly stated in the literal sense elsewhere.
To the second argument it must be said that these three things - history, etiology and analogy - belong to a single literal sense. It is history when, as Augustine explains, something is straightforwardly reported. It is etiology when the cause of that thing is explained, as when God explains why Moses permitted the repudiation of wives, namely because of the hardness of their hearts. It is analogy when the truth of one scripture is shown to be consistent with the truth of another. Among the four, allegory alone stands for the spiritual senses. In the same way, Hugh of St. Victor includes the anagogical sense under the allegorical and enumerates only three senses: The historical, allegorical and tropological.
To the third it must be said that the parabolic sense is included under the literal, for words can signify something properly and something else figuratively. In the latter case, the literal sense is not the figure of speech itself but the thing figured by it. For example, when scripture refers to the arm of God, the literal sense is not that God has a physical limb, but that he has what that limb signifies, namely the power to do things. Thus it is clear that no falsehood can ever underlie the literal sense of sacred scripture." (Source)
SHIP OF FOOLS ON AQUINAS
The theologian who trashed his theology
THERE IS little scope for overstating the extreme cleverness of Thomas Aquinas. 'Very clever', for example, would in fact be more like an understatement.
His books are quite incomprehensible to most mortals. Fortunately, there are many books written to explain Thomas's books. Unfortunately, anyone who understands Thomas immediately becomes incomprehensible as well, so they don't get us very far.
Not a likely passenger on the Ship of Fools, you might think. He's considered one of the greatest thinkers in history, by people who know about thinking. His influence on Christian ideas has been immeasurable. And he invented the limerick – although it has to be said that his own efforts weren't terribly funny.
He was entirely obsessed with deep and clever thinking. Ecclesiastical dignitaries and fellow brain-boxes would travel across the world to compare notes or tap his thoughts, only to find they couldn't get a word out of him, because he was too engrossed in mulling things over.
His greatest work of all was Summary of Theology, a big title for the biggest book you've ever seen (and if you've seen it you'll probably have seen some other pretty big books as well). In this he ties up all those little nagging questions about who is God, what is everything else, the meaning of life, and whether the Risen Christ had phlegm.
By St Nicholas's Day 1273, he was 49 and had been writing the book for eight years, with no end in sight. That day, he sat in his cell and wrote the words: 'The parts of penitence, because they are actions, have these last two relationships of power and order in time, but no order of position...'
He laid down his quill and went out to Mass. When he came back, he looked even more distracted and overawed than normal. The monks asked him if he was all right, and he murmered, 'I've met God.'
Thomas continued in this state for a worryingly long time. In the end they suggested he go back to his cell and get on with that book they were eagerly awaiting the next volume of.
'Oh no,' he said. 'I've met God. That's just a big pile of straw.'
And sure enough, he didn't write another word of theology for the rest of his life. (Although, admittedly, that wasn't especially long, because he died in a freak donkey-riding accident the following year.) (Source)
Thomas Aquinas on Sexual Pleasure
"A key to understanding the sexual ethics of Thomas Aquinas is his position that spouses sin whenever their purpose in having intercourse is the pleasure of it. The pleasure itself, Thomas declares, is not sinful, but necessary, natural and good. Nevertheless, it cannot be rational man's intended end. Other sense pleasures can be, inasmuch as they are pleasures of knowing something, e.g., a beautiful color. Sexual pleasure is a pleasure of knowing, too, but the kind of knowing is so minimal and negligible that it is not worthy of being an end intended by rational man. In modern critical dialogue one can ask: Is Thomas' ethical thinking radically handicapped by a model of knowledge that is valid, but unrealistically exclusive?" (John Giles Milhaven)
SEVEN DEADLY SINS
John Cassian: (8 sins) gluttony, fornication,avarice, anger, dejection, sloth, vainglory and pride.
Gregory the Great: pride, envy, anger, dejection, avarice, gluttony and lust. (Source: Encyclopedia of Religion. Ferm.)
St. Thomas Aquinas: anger, covetousness, envy, gluttony, lust, pride and sloth. (Source: Benet's Readers Encyclopedia.)
The Dumb Ox
The Universal Teacher
Teacher with pagan philosphers at his feet
14th C Dutch Manuscript
Treatise on the Life and Passion of Christ
15th century panel illustrates life of Aquinas. His brothers, angered by his entrance into the Dominican order, imprisoned him and sent a prostitute to tempt him. As she retreats (on left) two angels bind him with a girdle of chastity. After this episode, Aquinas professed never again to have felt any stirrings of the flesh.
“The end of my labours is come. All that I have written appears to me as so much straw, after the secrets that have been revealed to me! I hope in the Mercy of God that the end of my life may soon follow the end of my labours.”
(a) In finem puero Domini David, qui locutus est Domino verba
cantici huius in die qua eripuit eum Dominus de manu omnium
inimicorum eius, et de manu Saulis.
(a) To the end, for the boy of the Lord, David, who spoke the words
of this song to the Lord in the day when the Lord snatched him from
the hands of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul.
Diligam te, Domine, fortitudo mea: Dominus firmamentum meum, et
refugium meum, et liberator meus.
I will love thee, O Lord, my strength: The Lord is my firmament, my
refuge, and my deliverer.
(b) Deus meus adiutor meus, et sperabo in eum. Protector meus, et
cornu salutis meae, et susceptor meus. Laudans invocabo Dominum, et
ab inimicis meis salvus ero.
(b) My God is my helper, and in him will I put my trust. My
protector and the horn of my salvation, and my support. Praising I
will call upon the Lord: and I shall be saved from my enemies.
(c) Circumdederunt me dolores mortis, et torrentes iniquitatis
(c) The sorrows of death surrounded me: and the torrents of iniquity
(d) Dolores inferni circumdederunt me; praeoccupaverunt me laquei
mortis. In tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum, et ad Deum meum
clamavi. Et exaudivit me de templo sancto suo vocem meam; et clamor
meus in conspectu eius introivit in aures eius.
(d) The sorrows of hell encompassed me: and the snares of death
prevented me. In my affliction I called upon the Lord, and I cried
to my God: And he heard my voice from his holy temple: and my cry
before him came into his ears.
(e) Commota est, et contremuit terra, fundamenta montium conturbata
sunt, et commota sunt, quoniam iratus est eis.
(e) The earth shook and trembled: the foundations of the mountains
were troubled and were moved, because he was angry with them.
(f)Ascendit fumus in ira eius, et ignis a facie eius exarsit:
carbones succensi sunt ab eo.
There went up a smoke in his wrath: and a fire flamed from his face:
coals were kindled by it.
(g) Inclinavit caelos, et descendit; et caligo sub pedibus eius. Et
ascendit super Cherubim.
(g) He bowed the heavens, and came down: and darkness was under his
feet. And he ascended upon the cherubim, and he flew; he flew upon
the wings of the winds.
(h) Et volavit; volavit super pennas ventorum. Et posuit tenebras
latibulum suum, in circuitu eius tabernaculum eius; tenebrosa aqua
in nubibus aeris. Prae fulgore in conspectu eius nubes transierunt,
grando, et carbones ignis.
(h) and he flew; he flew upon the wings of the winds. And he made
darkness his covert, his pavilion round about him: dark waters in
the clouds of the air. At the brightness that was before him the
clouds passed, hail and coals of fire.
(i) Et intonuit de caelo Dominus, et Altissimus dedit vocem suam:
grando, et carbones ignis. Et misit sagittas suas, et dissipavit
(i) And the Lord thundered from heaven, and the Highest gave his
voice: hail and coals of fire. And he sent forth his arrows, and he
scattered them: he multiplied lightnings, and troubled them.
(k) Fulgura multiplicavit, et conturbavit eos.
(k) he multiplied lightnings, and troubled them.
(l) Et apparuerunt fontes aquarum, et revelata sunt fundamenta orbis
terrarum. Ab increpatione tua, Domine, ab increpatione spiritus irae
(l) Then the fountains of waters appeared, and the foundations of
the world were discovered: At thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of
the spirit of thy wrath.
(m) Misit de summo, et accepit me, et assumpsit me de aquis multis.
(m) He sent from on high, and took me: and received me out of many
(n) Eripuit me de inimicis meis fortissimis, et ab his qui oderunt
me, quoniam confortati sunt super me. Praevenerunt me in die
afflictionis meae, et factus est Dominus protector meus. Et eduxit
me in latitudinem; salvum me fecit, quoniam voluit me. Et retribuet
mihi Dominus secundum iustitiam meam; et secundum puritatem manuum
mearum retribuet mihi. Quia custodivi vias Domini, nec impie gessi a
Deo meo. Quoniam omnia iudicia eius in conspectu meo, et iustitias
eius non repuli a me.
(n) He delivered me from my strongest enemies, and from them that
hated me: for they were too strong for me. They prevented me in the
day of my affliction: and the Lord became my protector. And he
brought me forth into a large place: he saved me, because he was
well pleased with me. And the Lord will reward me according to my
justice; and will repay me according to the cleanness of my hands:
Because I have kept the ways of the Lord; and have not done wickedly
against my God. For all his judgments are in my sight: and his
justices I have not put away from me.
(o) Et ero immaculatus cum eo, et observabo me ab iniquitate mea. Et
retribuet mihi Dominus secundum iustitiam meam, et secundum
puritatem manuum mearum in conspectu oculorum eius.
(o) And I shall be spotless with him: and shall keep myself from my
iniquity. And the Lord will reward me according to my justice; and
according to the cleanness of my hands before his eyes.
(p) Cum sancto sanctus eris, et cum viro innocente innocens eris: et
cum electo electus eris, et cum perverso perverteris. Quoniam tu
populum humilem salvum facies; et oculos superborum humiliabis.
(p) With the holy, thou wilt be holy; and with the innocent man thou
wilt be innocent. And with the elect thou wilt be elect: and with
the perverse thou wilt be perverted. For thou wilt save the humble
people; but wilt bring down the eyes of the proud.
(q) Quoniam tu illuminans lucernam meam, Domine: Deus meus illumina
(q) For thou lightest my lamp, O Lord: O my God enlighten my
(r) Quoniam in te eripiar a tentatione, et in Deo meo transgrediar
(r) For by thee I shall be delivered from temptation; and through my
God I shall go over a wall.
(s) Deus meus, impolluta via eius, eloquia Domini igne examinata:
protector est omnium sperantium in se. Quoniam quis Deus praeter
Dominum; aut quis Deus praeter Deum nostrum?
(s) As for my God, his way is undefiled: the words of the Lord are
fire tried: he is the protector of all that trust in him. For who is
God but the Lord? or who is God but our God?
(t) Deus qui praecinxit me virtute, et posuit immaculatam viam meam.
(t) God who hath girt me with strength; and made my way blameless.
(u) qui perfecit pedes meos tamquam cervorum, et super excelsa
statuens me: Qui docet manus meas ad praelium: et posuisti ut arcum
(u) Who hath made my feet like the feet of harts: and who setteth me
upon high places. Who teacheth my hands to war: and thou hast made
my arms like a brazen bow.
(x) Et dedisti mihi protectionem salutis tuae, et dextera tua
suscepit me: et disciplina tua correxit me in finem: et disciplina
tua ispa me docebit. Dilitasti gressus meos subtus me, et non sunt
infirmata vestigia mea.
(x) And thou hast given me the protection of thy salvation: and thy
right hand hath held me up: And thy discipline hath corrected me
unto the end: and thy discipline, the same shall teach me. Thou hast
enlarged my steps under me; and my feet are not weakened.
(y) Persequar inimicos meos, et comprehendam illos; et non convertar
(y) I will pursue after my enemies, and overtake them: and I will
not turn again till they are consumed.
(z) Confringam illos, nec poterunt stare: cadent subtus pedes meos.
(z) I will break them, and they shall not be able to stand: they
shall fall under my feet.
(aa) Et praecinxisti me virtute ad bellum, et supplantasti
insurgentes in me subtus me: et inimicus meus dedisti mihi dorsum,
et odientes me disperdisti.
(aa) And thou hast girded me with strength unto battle; and hast
subdued under me them that rose up against me. And thou hast made my
enemies turn their back upon me, and hast destroyed them that hated
(bb) Clamaverunt, nec erat qui solvos faceret, ad Dominum; nec
exaudivit eos. Et comminuam eos ut pulverem ante faciem venti, ut
lutum platearum delebo eos.
(bb) They cried, but there was none to save them, to the Lord: but
he heard them not. And I shall beat them as small as the dust before
the wind; I shall bring them to nought, like the dirt in the
(cc) Eripies me de contradictionibus populi, constitues me in caput
gentium. Populus quem non cognovi, servivit mihi; in auditu euris
(cc) Thou wilt deliver me from the contradictions of the people:
thou wilt make me head of the Gentiles. A people, which I knew not,
hath served me: at the hearing of the ear they have obeyed me.
(dd) Filii alieni mentiti sunt mihi, filii alieni inveterati sunt,
et claudicaverunt a semitis suis.
(dd) The children that are strangers have lied to me, strange
children have faded away, and have halted from their paths.
(ee) Vivit Dominus, et benedictus Deus meus; et exaltetur Deus
(ee) The Lord liveth, and blessed be my God, and let the God of my
salvation be exalted :
(ff) Deus, qui das vindictas mihi, et subdis populos sub me,
liberator meus de inimicis meis iracundis. Et ab insurgentibus in me
exaltabis me; a viro iniquo eripies me. Propterea confitebor tibi in
nationibus, Domine; et nomini tuo Psalmum dicam. Magnificans salutes
Regis eius, et faciens misericordiam Christo suo David, et semini
eius usque in saeculum.
(ff) O God, who avengest me, and subduest the people under me, my
deliverer from my enemies. And thou wilt lift me up above them that
rise up against me: from the unjust man thou wilt deliver me.
Therefore will I give glory to thee, O Lord, among the nations, and
I will sing a psalm to thy name. Giving great deliverance to his
king, and shewing mercy to David his anointed: and to his seed for
In praecedenti psalmo psalmista petivit orando liberari ab inimicis;
hic autem liberatus gratias agit.
In the preceding psalm, the psalmist sought in prayer to be
liberated from his enemies; here he has been liberated and is giving
Et primo gratias agit de beneficio liberationis. Secundo prorumpit
in laudem liberatoris, ibi, caeli enarrant gloriam Dei.
And first he gives thanks for the benefit of liberation. Second, he
burst into praise of the liberator, where he says, "The heavens tell
the glory of God.
Titulus. In finem puero Domini David. Et locutus est verba cantici
hujus in die qua eripuit eum Dominus de manu inimicorum ejus, et de
manu Saulis. Et psalmus iste de verbo ad verbum habetur 2 Reg. 22.
Et historia est, quia 1 Reg. 19, legitur quomodo Saul quaerebat eum
occidere: et eo mortuo 2 Reg. 2: Iterum Ader et filius ejus fuit
The title. To the end, for the boy of the Lord, David. And he spoke
the words of this song on the day when the Lord rescued him from the
hands of his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. And this psalm,
word for word, is to be found in 2 Kings 22. The story is, as in 1
Kings 19, how Saul sought to kill him: and when Saul had died, 2
Kings 2: Again Abner and his son were against him.
Tandem victoriam habuit David contra eos. Et ideo fecit hunc
psalmum. Et Hieronymus dicit idem. Et quia per David significatur
Christus, omnia ista referri possunt ad Christum, vel secundum
caput, vel secundum corpus, scilicet ecclesiam quia liberata est a
Saule, idest morte: Saul enim interpretatur petitio, quia ad
petitionem populi datus fuit, immo potius extortus. unde non fuit
datus ad permanendum.
In the end David was victorious over them. And on this account he
made this psalm. And Jerome says the same thing. And since Christ is
signified by David, all these things can be referred to Christ,
either according to the head, or according to the body, namely the
Church, which is liberated from Saul, that is, from death: the name
"Saul" is translated as "petition", because he was given, or rather
extorted (from God) because the people asked for him, and he was not
given so that he would remain for any length of time.
Sic Christus primo sustinet mortem, postea remanet quietus, secundum
glossam. Liberatur etiam ab inimicis omnibus, Judaeis et daemonibus,
et quantum ad corpus suum, idest ecclesiam. Dividitur autem ista
pars in tres. In prima in generali commemorat beneficium
liberationis. In secunda ostendit potentiam liberantis, ibi, commota
est. In tertia modum liberationis, ibi, misit de summo etc..
Thus Christ first bore death, then there was a time of quiet,
according to the gloss. He was also liberated from all his enemies,
the Jews and demons, and with respect to his body, that is, the
Church. This part is divided into three. In the first part he
recalls the benefit of liberation in general terms. In the second
part he shows the power of the one who liberates, where he writes,
and it was moved. In the third part, he shows the mode of
liberation, where he writes, he sent from the high place etc..
Circa primum duo facit. Primo commemorat affectum quem concepit ex
beneficio praedicto. In secundo ostendit effectum inde sequentem,
ibi, laudans. Duplex affectus surrexit in eo ex hujusmodi beneficio;
scilicet amoris et spei. Et primo ponit primum. Secundo secundum,
ibi, Deus meus. Primo ponit affectum amoris ad Deum. Secundo
rationem ejus, ibi, fortitudo. Dicit ergo: o domine qui me
liberasti, ego semper, diligam te, quia in te manebo: Jo. 15: manete
in dilectione: Ro. 8: certus sum, quia neque vita neque mors, neque
angeli, neque creatura alia poterit nos separare a caritate Christi.
With regard to the first he does two things. First, he recalls the
emotion that he conceived from the aforesaid benefit. In the second
he shows the effect that follows from this, where he writes,
praising. A twofold emotion arises in him from this sort of benefit;
namely, the emotion of love and the emotion of hope. First, he
presents the first emotion. Second, he presents the second, where he
writes, my God. Second, he presents the reason for this, where he
writes, fortitude. He says therefore: O Lord, who has freed me, I
will always love you because I will abide in you: John 15: stay
fixed in love: Romans 8: I am certain that neither life nor death,
nor angels, nor any other creature can separate us from the love of
Diligere enim est rationabilium, amare generale est: Judic. 5: qui
diligunt te, sicut sol in ortu suo splendet, ita rutilant. Ratio
autem dilectionis alicujus est propter proprium bonum. Unde quando
quis reputat bonum suum dependere ab aliquo, haec est ratio quare
diligat eum. David reputabat totum bonum suum a Deo; unde dicit,
diligam te, quia tu es fortitudo mea.
To love (diligere) is proper to rational beings, while to love
(amare) has a general sense: Judges 5: Those who love you (diligere)
while shine like that sun in its rising, thus will they sparkle. The
reason for one's love (dilection) of something is on account of his
own good. Hence when someone reckons that his own good depends upon
another, this is the reason for loving (diligere) that other person.
David reckoned that all his good was from God; hence he says, I will
love (diligere) you, because you are my strength.
Fortitudo habet firmare animum, ne quis recedat a bono propter
difficultates imminentes. Quomodo autem sit ejus fortitudo,
ostendit. Homo indiget fortitudine ad duo. Primo in bonis, ut
stabiliatur in eis: et ideo dicit, Dominus firmamentum, idest firmum
fundamentum: 2 Reg. 22: Dominus petra mea: Matth. 7: Omnis qui audit
verba mea et facit ea, similis est viro aedificanti domum suam supra
The role of fortitude is to make the mind firm, lest someone draw
back from the good because of the difficulties that threaten. He
shows the qualities of this fortitude. A man needs fortitude for two
things. First, he needs fortitude in good things, to be established
in them: and so he says, the Lord is a firm thing, that is, a firm
foundation: 2 Kings 22: The Lord is my rock: Matt. 7: Everyone who
hears my words and does them, is like a man who builds his house
upon a rock.
Item in malis: et hoc ad duo. Uno modo antequam adveniat, ut fugiat:
unde dicit, refugium meum: Prov. 14: Turris fortissima nomen Domini:
Psal. 103: Petra refugium herinaciis. alio modo, postquam evenerint,
ut liberet; unde dicit, et liberator meus.
Again, he needs fortitude in evil things: and this is for two
reasons. First, before they come, so that he may flee: Prov. 14: The
name of the Lord is the strongest tower: Psal. 103: The rock is a
refuge for hedgehogs. In another way, after the evils have taken
place, that he will liberate; hence he says, and my liberator.
(b) Deus meus. Hic ponit affectum spei: et differt inter spem et
amorem: quia amor est vis unitiva: amamus enim aliquid inquantum
reputamus illud nostrum; et ideo dicit quod ipse est fortitudo sua:
isa. 12: fortitudo et laus mea Dominus, et factus est mihi in
salutem. Spes importat defensionem ab extrinseco; et utrumque Deus
(b) My God. Here he presents the emotion of hope: and there is a
difference between hope and love: because love is a unitive power:
for we love something insofar as we deem it is ours; and therefore
he says that He is his strength: Isaiah 12: My strength and my
praise is the Lord, and He has become salvation for me. Hope implies
protection from something outside; and God does both.
Vel sic. Objectum spei est bonum arduum futurum, possibile adipisci.
Sicut ergo quis amat propter bonum jam datum, ita sperat futurum ex
fiducia ex amore concepta, et ex similibus, inquantum credit similia
in futurum recipere. Et ideo hic tria facit. Primo sperat refugium
et firmamentum quod est in bonis. Secundo petit protectorium quod
est in malis, quae jam evenerunt. Dicit ergo primo, Deus meus
adjutor meus: Psal. 95: Nisi quia Dominus adjuvit me, paulo minus
habitasset in inferno anima mea etc.. Et ideo sperabo in eum: Eccl.
2: Qui timetis Dominum, sperate in illum, et cum oblectatione
venient vobis misericordiae.
Or thus. The object of hope is a difficult future good, something
that is possible to achieve. Thus, just as someone loves (another)
an account of a good already given, so he hopes for a future good
out of a confidence that is conceived from love, and from like
things, insofar as believes that he will receive like things in the
future. And therefore he does these three things. First he hopes for
the refuge and firm foundation that is in good things. Second, he
asks for protection in evil things that have already occurred.
Therefore he says first, my God, my helper: Psalm 95: Were not the
Lord my help, I would have soon dwelt in the grave etc.. And thus I
will hope in him: Eccl. 2: You who fear the Lord, hope in him, and
mercies will come to you with delight.
Secundo speramus liberari a malis, quibus nondum subjecti sumus,
quia defendit nos. Primo, ne laedamur. Secundo, quod ea vincamus et
pro victoria coronat. Quantum ad primum dicit, protector meus.
Hieronymus habet, scutum, quod protegit ne transfigi possit a malis;
sic facit Deus: Ps. 63: protexisti me Deus a conventu malignantium.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, et cornu salutis, quia animalia cornu
impingunt; ita virtus Dei contra adversarios resistit, quia pugnat,
ut vincat mala temporalia et spiritualia: Psal. 43: in te inimicos
nostros ventilabimus cornu: et in nomine tuo spernemus insurgentes
in nobis: 1 Reg. 2: Exultavit cor meum in Domino, et exaltatum est
cornu meum in Deo meo, idest virtus mea.
Second, we hope to freed from evils to which we have not yet been
subjected, because he defends us. First, we hope not to be harmed.
Second, we hope that we may conquer them and that He crowns us for
victory. With respect to the first he says, my protector. Jerome has
the word shield, which protects someone so he cannot be pierced by
evils; God does this: Ps. 63: God, you have protected me from the
gathering of evil doers. With respect to the second he says, and the
horn of salvation, because animals pierce with their horns; thus the
power of God resists adversaries, because He fights to conquer
temporal and spiritual evils: Psalm 43: In you we will ventilate our
enemies with a horn: and in your name we will remove those who rise
up among us: 1 Kings 2: My heart exulted in the Lord, and my horn is
raise in my God, that is, my power.
Quantum ad tertium, et susceptor meus. Quando quis vincit,
suscipitur cum triumpho; sic etiam facit Deus: Joan. 14: iterum
veniam et accipiam vos ad me ipsum, ut ubi sum ego, et vos sitis:
Ps. 72: cum gloria suscepisti me. Simile habetur 2 Reg. 22.
Consequenter ponit effectum sequentem, scilicet laudem. Laus est
sermo elucidans magnitudinem virtutis, vel ex hoc saltem sequitur.
Primo ergo ponit laudem. Secundo ejus efficaciam. Dicit ergo,
laudans invocabo Dominum; quasi dicat: ex hoc laudem propriam non
habeo, sed quaero tuam, quia tu fecisti; Isa. 63: miserationum
Domini recordabor: laudem Domini super omnibus, quae retribuit mihi.
Et invocabo, te, secure cum efficacia, quia sic invocans, salvus ero
ab inimicis meis: Joel. ult.: quicumque invocaverit nomen Domini,
With respect to the third, and my support. When someone is
victorious, he is received with a triumph; God also does this: John
14: I will come again and receive you do myself, so that you will be
where I am: Ps. 72: you have received me with glory. A like passage
is found in 2 Kings 22. Consequently he presents the effect that
follows from this, namely praise. Praise is speech that makes clear
that greatness of power, or at least it follows from this. First,
therefore, he presents praise. Second, the effective power of
praise. He says, therefore, praising, I will call upon the Lord; as
if to say: from this, I do not have proper praise, but I will seek
your praise, because you have acted; Isaiah 63: I will remember the
mercies of the Lord: the praise of the Lord over all that He has
given me. And I will invoke You, free of care with effective power,
because when I call upon you in this way, I will be saved from my
enemies: Joel (the end) whoever will call upon the name of the Lord,
will be saved.
(c) Circumdederunt. Hic ponitur necessitas liberationis. Et primo
magnitudinem liberationis ostendit. Secundo orationem quam fundit ad
Deum, in tribulatione. Trtio ponit exauditionem, exaudivit.
(c) They surrounded. Here we are presented with the necessity of
liberation. First he shows the greatness of the liberation. Second,
there is the prayer that he pours forth to God, in tribulation.
Third, he shows the prayer being heard, where he writes, he heard.
Nota quod ista tria sic sunt ad invicem ordinata, iniquitas, mors et
infernus, quod ex iniquitate homo inducitur ad mortem, et per mortem
deducitur ad infernum: et sicut primum est via ad secundum, ita est
secundum ad tertium. Et ideo primo dicit de primo progressu. Secundo
de secundo, quod de morte vadunt ad infernum, ibi, dolores inferni
etc.. Primo duo facit. Primo ponit modum. Secundo viam ad eam,
scilicet iniquitatem, torrentes iniquitatis.
Note that these three are ordered to one another: wickedness, death
and hell. From wickedness a man is drawn to death, and through death
he is led to hell: As just as the first (wickedness) is the road to
the second (death), so the second (death) is the road to the third..
And thus he first speaks of the first step. Second, he speaks of the
second step, that they go from death to hell, where he writes, the
pains of hell etc.. First he does two things. First he presents how
this happens (the mode). Secondly he presents the road to death,
namely wickedness, the torrents of wickedness.
Dolor mortis maximus est: 1 Reg. 15: Siccine separas amara mors?
Eccl. 41: Mors, quam amara est memoria tua. Unde quando quis non
potest eam effugere, tunc circumdant eum dolores; et tanto magis,
quanto sunt ineffugabiles. Via est iniquitas: quasi: ideo timeo eam,
quia, torrentes iniquitatis conturbaverunt me. Torrens est fluxus
aquae decurrentis cum impetu: Job 6: Sicut torrens qui raptim
transit in convallibus. Impetus ergo subitus iniquitatis interioris,
puta subitae tentationis et gravis, est torrens impellens ad
peccatum. Vel exterioris, sicut impetus alicujus hostis. et hi,
The pain of death is the greatest pain: 1 Kings 15: Doth bitter
death separate in this manner? Eccl. 41: Death, how bitter is your
memory. Hence, when someone cannot flee death, then pains surround
him; and all the more as he cannot flee from these pains. The road
is wickedness: as if to say: therefore I will fear him, because the
torrents of iniquity have disturbed me. A torrent is a flow of water
that is running downhill with force: Job 6: Like a torrent that
suddenly passes through in the valleys. The sudden forceful onset of
inner wickedness, for example, that of a sudden and serious
temptation, is a torrent impelling one to sin. Or that the sudden
onset of an outer wickedness, like the attack of an enemy. And they
(d) Dolores. Hic prosequitur secundum progressum; et ideo dicit,
dolores inferni, idest similes infernalibus: Gen. 37: Lugens in
infernum descendam. vel dolores qui concipiuntur ex timore inferni.
Et hi circumdant quando inevitabiles sunt. Et veniunt hi dolores,
quia praeoccupaverunt me laquei mortis. Quae mors?
(d) Sorrows. Here he follows a sequence. and so he says: the sorrows
of hell, that is, sorrows like those of hell: Genesis 37: I will go
down mourning, to my son in the nether world, or sorrows which are
conceived out of fear of hell. And these surround a man when they
are inevitable. And these sorrows come, because the snares of death
have caught me. What death is this?
Prov. 21: Qui congregat thesauros lingua mendacii, vanus et excors
est: et impingetur ad laqueos mortis. Ecce necessitas. Sed remedium
apposuit orationis. Et primo ponitur oratio; et ideo dicit, in
tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum. Oseae 6: in tribulatione sua mane
consurgent ad me: Baruch 3: Nunc Domine Deus etc.. Isa. 55: Quaerite
Dominum dum inveniri potest etc.. Ps. 49 Invoca me in die
tribulationis et eruam te: Sap. 7: Invocavi, et venit in me spiritus
Proverbs 21: He who gathers treasures by lying tongue is vain and
foolish, and shall stumble upon the snares of death. Here is the
necessity. But he adds the remedy of prayer. And first he presents
prayer, and thus he says, in my tribulation I called upon the Lord.
Osee 6: In their affliction they will rise early to me: And now, O
Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, the soul in anguish and the
troubled spirit cry to you. Isaiah 55: Seek the Lord while He may be
found, etc. Psalm 49: Then call upon me in time of distress; I will
rescue you, and you shall glorify me.
Consequenter ponitur orantis devotio, quia, ad Dominum meum clamavi,
idest cum magnitudine devotionis orantis: Ps. 119: ad dominum cum
tribularer etc.. Heb. 5: cum clamore valido et lacrymis offerens,
exauditus est: et dicit, ad Dominum meum clamavi, non alienum. Deut.
10: Dominum Deum tuum adorabis etc..
Consequently he presents the devotion of the one who is praying,
because he writes, to my Lord I cried, that is, with the greatness
of the devotion of the man who prays: Ps. 119: To the Lord when I
was in tribulation etc.. Hebrews 5: For Jesus, in the days of his
earthly prayers and supplications to him who was able to save him
from death, and was heard because of his reverent submission: and he
writes, I cried to my God, not to an alien God: Deuteronomy 10: You
will adore the Lord your God etc..
Tertio ponitur exauditio, exaudivit. Duo dixerat: se invocasse et
clamasse. Et ideo dicit exauditam vocem et clamorem. Unde? De templo
sancto vocem meam exaudivit. Templum Dei est ipsa excellentia suae
sanctitatis, quia Dominus est templum suum: Apoc. 21. Templum non
vidi in ea: Dominus enim Deus omnipotens templum illius est etc..
Item templum est ipse Christus: Joan. 2: hoc autem dicebat de templo
corporis sui, in quo Deus est per unionem personae.
Third, he presents the hearing, when he writes, he heard. He says
two things: that he invoked and that he cried. And he says that the
voice and clamor was heard. From where? From his holy temple He
heard my voice. The temple of God is the excellence of his sanctity,
because the Lord is his own temple: Apoc. 21. I say no temple in it,
for the Lord God Almighty is its temple etc.. Again, the temple is
Christ himself: John 2: He said this about the temple of his Body,
in which God is by the union of person.
Item anima justa, in qua Deus est per gratiam. 1 Cor. 3: Templum
enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos. Item Beata Virgo: Psal. 5:
Adorabo ad templum sanctum tuum, in qua, idest per quam exaudivit
nos Deus: Ps. 33: Exaudivit me, et ex omnibus tribulationibus meis
eripuit me. Item Ecclesia: Ps. 10: Dominus in templo suo. Et de
quolibet templo isto exaudivit: 3 Reg. 18: Si quis cognoverit plagam
cordis sui, et expanderit manus suas in domo hac, tu exaudies in
loco habitationis tuae.
Again, the just soul in whom God is by grace. 1 Cor. 3: For the
temple of God, which is you, is holy. Again, the Blessed Virgin:
Psalm 5: I will adore at your Holy Temple, in which, that is,
through which, God has listened to us: Psalm 33: He listened to me,
and he rescued me from all my tribulations. Again, the Church: Psalm
10: The Lord in his temple. And in this temple he hears about
everything: 3 Kings 8: When a man shall know the wound of his own
heart, and shall spread forth his hands in this house, then hear
thou in heaven, in the place of thy dwelling.
Et non solum orationem dicit exauditam, sed etiam clamorem; ideo
dicit, Et clamor meus in conspectu ejus introivit in aures ejus. Et
dicit, in conspectu, idest in oculis ejus, quia omnia videt: Exo. 3:
Videns vidi afflictionem etc.. Vel in conspectu, idest in
beneplacito: vel in corde, ubi ipse solus conspicit: 1 Reg. 16: Homo
videt ea quae apparent, Deus autem intuetur cor. Et introivit in
aures ejus, per acceptationem: Jac. 5: clamor eorum in aures Domini.
Vel in aures, idest in clementiam ejus: Eccl. 15: Oratio humiliantis
se nubes penetrat.
He says not only that the prayer is heard, but the cry as well; thus
he says, and my cry has entered in his sight into his ears. And he
says, in his sight, that is, in his eyes, because he sees all
things: Exodus 3: I have witnessed the affliction etc. Or in the
sight, that is, in the good pleasure: or in the heart, where He
alone sees: 1 Kings 16: for man sees the things that appear, but God
beholds the heart. And it entered into his ears, by acceptance:
James 5: And their cry has entered into the ears of the Lord. Or
into the ears, that is, into his clemency: Eccl. 15: The prayer of
the one who humbles himself penetrates the clouds.
(e) Commota. Supra egit psalmista de affectu concepto ex beneficiis
liberationis; hic agit de potentia liberantis. Potentia agentis
ostenditur ex effectu agentis; quae autem hic dicuntur, possunt ad
duplicem Dei effectum pertinere: scilicet ad illum qui ostenditur in
corporalibus, et ad effectum redemptionis.
(e) Shaken. Above, the psalmist discusses the feeling conceived from
the benefits of liberation; here he discusses the power of the
liberator. The power of the one who acts is shown from the effect of
the one who acts; the things that are said here can apply to two of
God's effects: to the effect that is shown in physical things, and
to the effect of redemption.
Et forte verius ad utrumque: quia ea quae hic dicuntur sub figura
corporalium, spiritualiter complentur per effectum redemptionis.
Effectus autem divinae potentiae maxime manifestatur in rebus
corporalibus, quia spiritualia minus sunt nobis nota; et praecipue
in illis quas homines admirantur; et haec sunt commotiones
elementorum, scilicet terrae, aeris, aquae et ignis.
Perhaps more truly his words apply to both: because those things
that are said under the figure of physical things, are fulfilled
spiritually by the effect of redemption. The effect of divine power
is most manifest in physical things, because spiritual things are
less known to us; and this is chiefly in things at which men wonder;
these are the shaking of elements, that is, of the earth, air, water
Dividitur ergo pars ista in tres partes. Primo ostendit Dei
potentiam in effectibus qui sunt circa terram. Secundo in
permutationibus aeris. Tertio in permutationibus aquarum. Secunda,
ibi, Inclinavit caelos. tertia, ibi, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Sed
si ad mysterium referatur, dividitur in duo. Primo ostendit fructum
divinae redemptionis factae per Christum. Secundo modum ipsius, ibi,
Inclinavit caelos. Prima in duo. Ad primum referendo, primo agit de
effectu terrae, quae est ab imo.
Thus this part is divided into three parts. First he shows the power
of God in the effects that are on the earth. Second, in the changes
of the air. Third, in the changes of the waters. The second part is
where he says He bowed the heavens. The third part, where he says,
Then the fountains of waters appeared. But if this is taken to refer
to a mystery, it is divided into two. First he shows the fruit of
the divine redemption brought about by Christ. Second, he shows the
mode of this redemption, where he says, He bowed the heavens. The
first part is divided into two. Referring to the first, he talks
about the effect of the first, which is from below.
Secundo de eo, qui a summo ascendit. Si mystice, sic ostenditur
duplex effectus redemptionis: scilicet poenitentia peccatorum, et
devotio justorum, ibi, Ascendit. Sed secundum quod refertur ad
corporalem effectum, qui est ab imo terrae, maxime mirabilis
effectus est terraemotus etc.. Hic tria tangit. Primo ipsam
commotionem. Secundo id quod mirabilem eam reddit. Tertio ejus
causam. Dicit ergo, Commota est et contremuit terra.
Second, he talks about that which goes up from the highest place. If
this is taken in a mystic sense, then the twofold effect of
redemption is shown: namely, penance or sinners, and the devotion of
just men, where he says, He went up. But insofar as it refers to the
physical effect, which is from the lowest part of the earth, the
most wonderful effect is the earthquake, etc. Here he touches upon
three things. First, the shaking itself. Second, that which makes
this shaking wonderful. Third, the cause of the shaking. Therefore
he says, The earth was shaken and trembled.
Dupliciter aliquid movetur. Uno modo movetur aliquid de loco in
locum: et sic non movetur terra. Alio modo ad modum trementis: et
sic mirabilem facit esse terraemotum concussio montium: quia si
terra mollis moveretur, non esset mirabile; sed quando moventur
montes, tunc mirabile est; et ideo dicit, Conturbata sunt, quia
videntur stabilitatem amisisse. Prima causa est voluntas divina; et
hanc exprimit metaphorice cum dicit, Quoniam iratus est eis,
scilicet Deus. Sicut cum dominus turbatur, qui ei assistunt,
tremunt; ita ad commotionem Dei omnia turbantur.
Something may be moved in two ways. In one way, something is moved
from place to place, and the earth is not moved in this way. In
another way, something may be moved as something that trembles. And
so a strike upon the mountains makes a wonderful earthquake; because
if it were soft earth that were moved, it would not evoke wonder;
bed when the mountains are moved, then this is wonderful; and so he
says, They were shaken, because they seemed to lose their firmness.
The first cause is the divine will; and he expresses this
metaphorically when he says, Because He was angry with them, namely,
God. Just as when a lord is upset, those who serve him tremble, to
when God is upset, all things are upset.
Mystice designatur per hoc commotio hominum ad poenitentiam. Item
inter eos quidam sunt minores: et hi designantur per terram; unde
dicit, Commota est et contremuit terra, idest qui prius peccatores
erant et terreni: Is. 51: Posuisti ut terram cor tuum, et quasi viam
In a mystical sense, by this is designated the movement of men to
repentance. At the same time, among those who are lesser, and these
men are designated by earth; hence he says, The earth was shaken and
trembled, that is, those who are in the first place sinners and
earthly: Isaiah 51: Thou hast laid thy body as the ground, and as a
way to them that went over.
Haec commota est per affectum a terrenis ad caelestia, et hoc a
tremore quem concepit de poenis: Is. 26: a timore tuo Domine
concepimus, et quasi parturivimus et peperimus spiritum salutis.
The earth is shaken by a feeling from things of the earth to things
of the heavens, and this is from the trembling that is conceived
concerning punishments: Isaiah 26: We have conceived, and been as it
were in labor, and have brought forth wind; we have not wrought
salvation upon the earth.
Quidam sunt magni; et hi dicuntur montes, idest superbientes in
saeculo. Commota sunt, per Christi adventum. Montium fundamenta sunt
illa in quibus firmantur, scilicet divitiae, potestates et honores:
Ps. 45: Transferuntur montes in cor maris, puta turbantur quando
veniunt adversitates; et post totaliter commoventur: Is. 23: Dominus
exercituum cogitavit hoc ut detraheret omnem superbiam gloriae, et
ad ignominiam deduceret universos inclytos terrae.
Certain people are great; and these are called mountains, that is,
those who take pride in this age. They are shaken by the coming of
Christ. The foundations of the mountains are those things in which
these people are made firm, namely, riches, powers and honors: Psalm
45: The mountains are moved into the heart of the sea, which we may
suppose to mean that they are disturbed when adversities come; and
after this they are completely shaken: Isaiah 23: The Lord of hosts
hath designed it, to pull down the pride of all glory, and bring to
disgrace all the glorious ones of the earth.
Omnia regna et potestates quae habent initium, habebunt occasum:
ratio est, quoniam turbatus est eis. Hoc potest dupliciter
intelligi. Si de malis, non est dubium quin ex vindicta Dei, quae
dicitur ira, transferentur; si de bonis, idest quoniam ira Dei eis
innotuit, ideo convertuntur. Innotuit enim per eum: Rom. 1:
revelatur ira Dei de caelo super omnem impietatem et injustitiam
hominum eorum qui veritatem Dei in injustitia detinent.
All the kingdoms and powers that have a beginning also have their
fall: the reason is that He is disturbed with them. This can be
understood in two ways. If it is a matter of evil things, there is
no doubt that they are moved from their position by God's vengeance,
which is called anger. If it is a matter of good things, it is
because the anger of God is made known to them, and so they convert.
It is made known by Him: Romans 1: The anger of God has been
revealed from heaven over all the impiety and injustice of those men
who hold back the truth of God in injustice.
(f) Ascendit. Hic ponitur corporaliter exponendo effectus, qui est a
summo. Effectus autem terrae a summo est, quando terra caelesti igne
in aliqua sui parte comburitur: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo tangit
materiam ipsam. Secundo accensionem ignis et combustionem.
(f) There went up. Here is presented in a physical way the effect
that is from on high. The effect of the earth is from the highest
place, when the earth in some part of itself is burning from a
heavenly fire: and with regard to this he does two things. First he
deals with the matter itself. Second, he deals with the rising of
the fire and the burning.
Materia ejus est fumus siccus resolutus ascendens quousque
inflammetur; et ideo dicit, ascendit fumus in ira ejus, idest in
voluntate ejus, idest Dei per quam sic punit. A facie, idest a
potestate ejus, ignis exardescit, idest accenditur; et carbones,
idest materia combustibilis hic incenditur. Mystice per hoc
innuuntur duo: scilicet devotio orationis, et inflammatio caritatis.
Ascendit: et ex hoc consideratur ira Dei contra peccatores. Ascendit
fumus, devotae orationis: Apoc. 8: ascendit fumus aromatum, idest
ignis caritatis: a facie ejus, idest Christi, exardescit: Luc. 12:
ignem veni mittere in terram. Carbones succensi sunt ab eo, scilicet
isti susceptivi accensionis.
Its matter is the dry and smoke that is set loose and arises until
fire breaks out; and therefore he says, smoke went up in his anger,
that is, in his will, that is, the will of God by which He punishes.
From His face, that is, from His power, the fire flames out, that
is, it is kindled; and coals, that is, combustible material is set
aflame here. Two things are mystically suggested here: namely
devotion in prayer, and the burning of charity. There went up: and
here we consider the anger of God against sinners. There went up
smoke, the smoke of devoted prayer: Apoc. 8: There went up an
aromatic smoke, that is, the fire of charity: from His face, that
is, Christ, it flamed: Luke 12: I have come to sent fire upon the
earth. The coals have been lit by Him, that it, those who were
capable of being kindled.
Carbo aliquando habuit ignem; sic homo a principio habuit caritatem,
sed extinctus erat; sed isti succensi sunt a Christo. item carbones
non humidi sic incenduntur, sed humidi, non: sicut humidi fluxu
carnalium: ps. 119: sagittae potentis acutae cum carbonibus etc..
Commota est et contremuit terra; fundamenta montium conturbata sunt
et commota sunt, quoniam iratus est eis.
A coal at one time had fire; so, a man had charity in the beginning,
but it was snuffed out; but these have been kindled by Christ.
Again, coals that are not wet are set on fire in this way, but wet
coals are not: like those who are wet from the flow of carnal
things: Psalm 119: The arrows of the powerful are sharp with coals
etc.. The earth was shaken and trembled; the foundations of the
mountains were disturbed and shaken, because He was angry at them.
Deus irasci dicitur, quia ad modum irati se habet non in se, sed
quantum ad effectum: Dominus autem iratus facit tremere servum, et
leo catulum. Pro quo sciendum, quod virtus continens membra
dimittitur exterius, et revertitur interius, puta ad cor quasi
fugiens, et cedens malo imaginato: vel virtuti surgenti contra eam
cui resistere non potest, et membra tremunt, sicut murus cum
concutitur fundamentum. Anima enim continet corpus, et est quasi
fundamentum ejus; et pars animae partem corporis. Unde concusso
fundamento concutitur murus; et concussa virtute concutitur membrum.
Sic ergo effectus irae in animali est tremor.
God is said to anger, because He is like one who is angry not in
himself, but with respect to his effect. An angry master makes his
servant tremble, and a lion causes a cub to tremble. With regard to
this, it should be known that the virtue which contains the members
is outwardly lost, and returns within, for example, to the heart as
one fleeing, and it gives in to some imagined evil: or it gives in
to a power that rises against it, a power that it cannot resist, and
the members tremble, like a wall when the foundation is struck. For
the soul contains the body, and it is like the foundation of the
body; and the part of the soul contains the part of the body. Hence,
when the foundation is struck, the wall is struck; and when a power
is struck, the member is struck. Thus in an animal, the effect of
anger is shaking.
Dicitur autem animal tremere, quando concutitur pars ejus, toto in
eodem loco manente: et similiter quia contingit hoc in terraemotu,
dicitur terra tremere per similitudinem ad animalia. Dicitur enim
Deus irasci terrae in terraemotu.
An animal is said to tremble when part of it is struck, while the
whole animal remains in one spot: and likewise, because this happens
is an earthquake, the earth is said to tremble by a comparison with
animals. For God is said to be angry in an earthquake.
Vel sic. In homine sunt quatuor: scilicet ratio, vires sensitivae,
natura, res et corpus. Sed in mundo sunt Deus, angeli, animalia,
plantae, et elementa. Videmus enim quod ad malum imaginatum, cui
corpus non potest resistere, corpus statim tremit; non ex
cognitione, sed quodam naturali ordine sive naturaliter, inquantum
virtus mali imaginati est potentior. Et similiter Deus cum vertit
virtutem suam super terram, licet non cognoscat iram, naturaliter
tremit. Fundamenta, idest aliquae concavitates sive terra concava,
qua mota montes concutiuntur.
Or in this way. There are four things in man: namely, reason, the
sensitive powers, nature, the thing and body. But in the world there
are God, the angels, the animals, the plants and the elements. For
we see that the body immediately trembles when it imagines an evil
that the body cannot resist; it does not tremble from knowledge, but
by a certain natural order, that is, naturally, insofar as the power
of the imagined evil is greater. And likewise God, when He directs
his power over the earth, although the earth does not know anger, it
naturally trembles. The foundations, that is, certain concavities
like concave earth, and when this is moved that mountains are
Quoniam iratus etc.. Prima causa est voluntas Dei sive virtus ejus
volens in eis agere: sed mediantibus causis secundis hoc agit; ita
quod omnes causae secundae comparantur ad terram sicut imaginatum
malum commovens membra. Ascendit fumus. Ubi nota secundum
philosophum, quod a terra humida resolvitur virtute caloris solis
vapor calidus et humidus; a terra autem sicca vapor siccus et
calidus; sed naturaliter plus ascendit secundus quam primus. hic
enim assimilatur igni, ille aeri: et hunc vaporem psalmista vocat
fumum, secundum calidum et siccum.
Because he was angry etc.. The first cause is the will of God or his
virtue that wills to act in them, but this acts by the mediation of
secondary causes; so that all secondary causes are compared to earth
like an imagined evil moves the members. Smoke rose up. Here, note
that according to the philosopher, warm and human vapor is released
from moist earth by the power of the sun's heat. Dry and hot vapor
is released from dry earth. But naturally, the second vapor rises
more than the first. The latter is likened to fire, the former to
air: and psalmist calls this vapor smoke, as it is hot and dry.
Philosophus vero vocat eum materiam incendii. Sursum enim latus hic
vapor cum modico augmento caloris factus, per modum circulationis
accenditur. Qui quidem fumus siccus si habeat longitudinem et
latitudinem, postquam accensus est, vocatur flamma. Est enim flamma,
secundum philosophum, spiritus sicci ardoris.
The philosopher call it the matter of fire. When this vapor is taken
aloft and a small amount of heat is added, it is set aflame by way
of circulation. If this dry smoke had length and breadth after it is
set afire, it is called a flame. For a flame, according to the
philosopher, is a spirit or gust of dry heat.
Si longitudinem tantum, vocatur daly sive titiones et aegibes sive
caprae et sidera. Daly quidem quando est materia illa incendii
longa, continua sine scintillatione. caprae vocatur quando est cum
scintillatione, idest quando videtur salire et discurrere, sicut
caprae. sidera, quando est materia discontinua, et videtur volare
sicut sidera: et hoc habet minimum de materia.
If it has only length, it is called torches or firebrands, and
"aegibes" (goats), or planets and stars. They are called torches
when the matter is long in its burning, continuous without
twinkling. It called goats when it is with twinkling, that is, when
it seems to leap and run around, like goats. Stars, when it is
discontinuous matter, and seems to fly like stars, and that has the
least amount of matter.
Est et aliud genus siderum, quod est frigus expellens calidum: et
talia sidera non videntur volare, sed magis projici, ut dicit
philosophus: et generantur non ex fumo omnino sicco, sed vapore
magis humido et calido; qui secundum naturam suam non tantum
ascendit sicut siccus, sicut dictum est. Et quia est siccum, patitur
a frigido et repercutitur, et inferius projicitur.
And there is another kind of stars, which is cold and expels what is
hot: and such stars do not appear to fly, but rather they seem to be
thrown, as the philosopher says: and they are not generated at all
from dry smoke, but rather from moist and warm vapor; which
according to its nature does not ascend as much as the dry, as was
said. And since it is dry, it is subject to the cold and is struck
down, and is thrown down.
Et fit hoc in die et in sereno: alias extingueretur a densitate et
humiditate aeris. Et quia videtur in die, signum est, quod est prope
terram. Accenditur autem dupliciter; et per continuationem, sicut
superior flamma accendit inferiorem lucernam; sive per motum a
frigore et constrictione, sive conglobatione calidi. Sic ergo dicit,
ascendit fumus, idest exhalatio sicca: in ira ejus, idest per
voluntatem ipsius volentem agere in eo. Et ignis, idest ille fumus
qui vocatur ignis etiam a philosopho in principio Metaph., quasi eo
quod non habeat proprium nomen: sicut exhalatio humida quae vocatur
vapor; sed dicitur ignis, quia disposita est ad ascensionem, et quia
est calida et sicca sicut ignis.
And this happens in day and in calm weather; otherwise it would be
extinguished by the density and humidity of the air. And that it
appears in the day is a sign that it is close to the earth. It is
set on fire in two ways; by continuation, as a flame above lights a
lamp below; or by motion on account of cold and squeezing, or the
pressing together of that which is hot. Then therefore he says,
smoke rose up, that is, a dry exhalation: in his anger, that is, by
his will, willing to act in it. And fire, that is, the smoke that is
called fire also by the philosopher in the beginning of the
Metaphysics, as if it did not have a proper name: just as the humid
exhalation which is called steam; but it is called fire, because it
is disposed to rise, and because it is hot and dry like fire.
Iste enim ignis exarsit, idest accensus est, scilicet a Deo tamquam
a prima causa: qui quidem ignis accensus vocatur dalus, flamma et
sidera: sidera dico generata primo modo, ut dictum est. Et carbones
succensi sunt ab eo, idest sidera secundo modo generata. Vel sic.
Commota est etc.. Vapor siccus virtute caloris solis a terra
elevatus, aliquando est subtilis: et tunc elevatur superius, et
facit intensionem, ut dictum est supra.
For this fire burns, that is, it is ignited, namely by God as by the
first cause: this fire when lite is called a firebrand, flame and
stares: I speak of stars generated in the first way, as was said.
And coals have been kindled by him, that is, starts generated in the
second way. Or thus. The earth was shaken etc.. Dry vapor when it is
lifted from the earth by the power of the sun's heat is sometimes
fine or subtle; and then it is lifted higher and it makes stretching
(intensity), as was said above.
Aliquando in superficie terrae est aliquantulum grossior; unde a
frigore repercussus non tantum ascendit, et est ventus; aliquando in
terram elevatur grossior vapor siccus, qui propter suam grossitiem
et terrae soliditatem et profunditatem non expirat extra, sed
clauditur in terra, et congregatur in aliqua concavitate terrae
simili sibi, et coarctatur ab aliquo corpore non sibi simili in
specie, et sic agitatur in terrae visceribus: et sic commovet eam:
nec mirum, cum videamus ventum in mari facere undas quasi montes, et
in terra elevare arbores et aedificia facere corruere, et in aere
tempestates maximas facere.
At times, it is somewhat thicker in the surface of the earth; hence
when it is affected by cold it does not rise as much, and it is a
wind; at times it is raised to the earth as a thicker dry vapor,
which on account of its thickness and the solidity and depth of the
earth does not breathe out any further, but is locked in the earth,
and it is gathered in some cavernous space of the earth that is like
itself, and it is confined by some body which is not like itself in
species, and thus it is agitated in the bowels of the earth; and
thus it moves the earth: it is no wonder, since we see the wind at
sea make waves like mountains, and upon the land we see the wind
lift trees and make buildings collapse, and make very great storms
in the air.
Quod autem ventus sit causa terraemotus, signum est quod ante
terraemotum consuevit fieri tranquillitas a ventis; sed post
terraemotum sunt venti. Materia autem terraemotus subtiliata per
calorem solis expirat a terra: et sic cessat terraemotus et fit
ventus. Causa terraemotus est impulsio unius venti ab alio: et
propterea non potest esse in tota terra simul, sed durant per
ducenta miliaria ad plus, ut dicit Seneca. Et dicit quod terraemotus
divisit Siciliam a Calabria, et Hispaniam ab Africa. Et durat
aliquando per quadraginta dies; aliquando per unum annum. Item nota
quod terra solida a qua non potest vapor exire exterius, apta est ut
cito moveatur: ea enim quae est de natura lapidea, non leviter
movetur et concutitur; oportet tamen ab aliqua parte porosam esse,
unde ingrediatur vapor; ut per poros intret, et per soliditatem
One sign that wind is the cause of earthquakes is that before an
earthquake the air usually becomes tranquil without wind; but after
the earthquake there are winds. The matter of an earthquake is made
fine by the heat of the sun and breathes out from the earth; and so
the earthquake ceases and the wind begins. The cause of an
earthquake is one wind being pushed by another; and on this account
there cannot be an earthquake at the same time over the whole earth,
but they extend over two hundred miles at the most, as Seneca says.
And Seneca says that it was an earthquake that divided Sicily from
Calabria, and Spain from Africa. And sometimes an earthquake lasts
forty days; sometimes a whole year. Again, note that solid earth
from which vapor cannot leave is apt to be quickly moved; for such
earth is of a stony nature, it is not moved lightly and it is
struck; however, it must be porous in some part, from which the
vapor enters; as the vapor enters by pores and is contained by
Et si dicas, si ingrediatur non potest egredi, dicendum quod non
potest semper hoc facere: quia aliquando semper continuatur
ingressus et elevatio vaporis ad locum illum. Et iterum, quia
calidum non vadit inferius, ad hoc cooperatur unda maris claudens
poros, et pro frigore recludens inferius. Unde loca cavernosa circa
mare faciunt frequenter terraemotum. Item nota quod iste vapor
continue egreditur de terra quantum ad aliquid, et propterea tempore
terraemotuum animalia quae portant caput juxta terram saepe ex hoc
inficiuntur per vaporem illum venenosum egredientem de terra.
And if you say that if it enters it cannot leave, it should be said
that it cannot always do this: because sometimes the entry and
elevation of vapor to this place is continuous. And again, because
that which is hot does not descend, and the waves of the sea that
close the pores work together to this end, and enclose it below for
cold. Again, note that this vapor continuously leaves the earth to
some extent, and on this account, in time of earthquakes animals
that carry their heads close to the earth are often thereby affected
by the poisonous vapor that comes out of the earth.
(g) Inclinavit. Hic agit de ventis. Ubi nota quod materia venti est
vapor vel exhalatio sicca calefacta, sed non ita subtiliata quod
possit ad supremum locum ascendere, nec ita calefacta: unde
impeditur a frigore et ingrossatur et repercutitur inferius: et haec
repercussa movet aerem. Habet tamen tantum de caliditate quod non
ita vincitur a frigore ut convertatur ad terram; et dicitur, caligo,
et dicitur, sub pedibus, quia non est alta sicut illa quae
accenditur in flamma. Aliquando autem non statim repercutitur, sed
agitat nubes, quia non totaliter vincitur, nec directe redit
inferius ad terram: et propter hunc motum tortuosum quasi nititur
sursum ascendere, et non valet propter repercussionem; et hoc est
(g) He bowed the heavens. Here he discusses winds. Note that the
matter of wind is a dry vapor or exhalation that has been warmed,
but which is not so fine that it can rise to the highest place, nor
has it been heated to that extent: hence it is impeded by cold, is
thickened and beaten to a lower place: and when it is struck it
moves the air. It has enough heat that it is not bound by the cold
to become earth; and it says, darkness, and it says, under his feet,
because it not high like that which is ignited into flame. At times
it is not struck right away, but it disturbs the clouds, because it
is not totally bound, nor does it return directly below to earth;
and because of this twisting motion, it tries, as it were, to rise,
and it cannot because it is beaten back; and this is what he says.
(h) Et volavit. Hic agit de permutationibus aeris secundum
corporales effectus: et est triplex permutatio: scilicet in ventis,
in nubibus et tonitruis: et agit de qualibet. Circa primum proponit
tria. Primo causam effectivam omnium istarum transmutationum.
Secundo materiam. Tertio modum.
(h) And he flew. Here he discusses the changes in the air with
respect to physical effects: and there is a threefold change:
namely, in the air, in the clouds, and in the thunders: and he
treats each of these. With regard to the first he proposes three
things. First, the efficient cause of all these changes. Second, the
matter. Third, the mode.
Causa autem omnium istorum est corpus caeleste, quod suo motu causat
has alterationes aeris; et ideo dicit, Inclinavit caelos, idest
virtutem caelestium corporum ordinavit ad hos effectus: quia hoc
habent a Deo. Et descendit. Licet Deus immobilis manens omnia
operetur, dicitur tamen moveri per effectum, inquantum facit mobiles
effectus. Sap. 7: Omnibus mobilibus mobilior est sapientia; et
secundum hoc dicitur descendere, inquantum facit descendere virtutem
The cause of all these is a heavenly body, which by its motion
causes these changes in the air, and so he says, he bowed down the
heavens, that is, he ordered the power of the heavenly bodies to
these effects: because they have this from God. And he came down.
Although God works all things while remaining immobile himself, he
is said to be moved by way of an effect, insofar as he makes effects
that can be moved. Wisdom 7: Wisdom is more mobile than all mobile
things; and according to this He is said to come down, insofar as he
makes the power of the heavens come down.
Materia ventorum est caligo, sive fumus siccus; non ita subtilis
quod ascendat usque ad ignem, sed subsistens; et dicit, sub pedibus,
idest sub potestate ejus; et totum est a Deo.
The matter of the winds is darkness, or dry smoke; it is not so fine
that it rises to fire, but it remains; and he said, under his feed,
that is, under his power; and all is from God.
Modus. Ascendit super cherubim. Notandum quod Judaei fingunt quod
sicut rex habet currum, ita habet Deus etiam currum, qui est
Cherubin; et imaginantur deum corporalem et similem Cherubin. Et
ideo in Psalmo Hieronymi etiam de verbo ad verbum dicitur, equitavit
super Cherubin. Et isti habent falsam imaginationem; quia quae
imaginabiliter dicuntur in scriptura, signa sunt spiritualis
veritatis. Divina autem sapientia moveri dicitur, inquantum motum
causat in mobilia. Quidquid autem causat Deus in istis inferioribus,
causat ministerio spiritualis creaturae: unde dicit Augustinus quod
Deus movet corporalem creaturam mediante spirituali: sed non facit
hoc sua virtute spiritualis creatura, sed Deo praesidente. et
dicitur hoc specialiter facere Cherubin, quia interpretatur
plenitudo scientiae: et Deus omnia per suam scientiam facit.
Mode. He ascended upon the Cherubim. It should be noted that the
Jews images that just as a king has a chariot, so God also has a
chariot, which is the Cherubim; and they imagine God as physical and
like the Cherubim. And so in the Psalm of Jerome it is also said
word for word, he rode upon the Cherubim. And they have a false
imagination, because the things that are said using images in
Scripture, are sings of a spiritual truth. Divine wisdom is said to
be moved, insofar as it causes movement in mobile things. Whatever
God causes in this things below, he causes by the ministry of a
spiritual creature: hence Augustine says that God moves the physical
creature by the mediation of a spiritual creature: but the spiritual
creature does not do this by his own power, but God presides. And
the Cherubim are said especially to do this, because Cherubim
translates as fullness of knowledge: and God makes all things by his
Et dicitur esse super Cherubim, quia scientia Dei excedit scientiam
angelorum. Et ideo facit hoc Deus, volans, idest volare faciens. Et
per Cherubin, idest per suam scientiam, et super eos qui excedit
illos: et dixit volavit, quia motus venti non est uniformis: et
dicit, pennas ventorum, propter velocitatem motus eorum. Mystice hic
ponitur mysterium incarnationis. Et primo ponitur Christi
incarnatio, per quam exivit et venit in mundum. Secundo ejus
ascensio, qua ivit ad Patrem, ibi, Ascendit super Cherubim. Tertio
ea quae post Christi ascensionem in ecclesia facta sunt, et posuit
And he is said to go up upon the Cherubim, (or above the Cherubim),
because the knowledge of God exceeds the knowledge of the angels.
And therefore God does this, flying, that is, making fly. And
through the Cherubim, that is, through his knowledge, and over the
Cherubim because he exceeds them: and he said, he flew, because the
motion of the wind is not uniform: and he says, the wings of the
wind, on account of the speed of their motion. Mystically the
mystery of the incarnation is presented here. And first, the
incarnation of Christ is presented, by which he departed and came
into the world. Second, his ascension, whereby he went to the
Father, where it says, he went up upon the Cherubim. Third, the
things that have happened in the Church after Christ's ascension,
and he made darkness his covert.
Dicit ergo, inclinavit caelos et descendit, etc.. Si quis magnus
facit humilitatem alicui parvo de villa, dicitur facere injuriam et
dejectionem toti loco cui praesidet. Sic filius hominis dicitur
humiliare se et inclinare caelos, quia voluit venire ad nos humilis.
Descendit, idest visibilis apparuit: Baruch, 3: post haec in terris
visus est, et cum hominibus conversatus est. 1 Joan. 1: Quod vidimus
et audivimus et manus nostrae contrectaverunt de verbo vitae.
He says therefore, he bowed down the heaven and descended, etc.. If
someone great humiliates someone small from a village, he is said to
cause insult and dejection to the entire place over which he
presides. Thus the son of man is said to humiliate himself and bend
down the heavens, because he wanted to come to as as someone humble.
He came down, that is, he appeared as visible: Baruch 3: after these
things he was seen in the lands, and he conversed with men. 1 John
1: That which we have seen and heard and what our hands have touched
of the word of life.
Descendit ergo per humilitatem accipiendo carnem humanam, moriendo
et docendo humilia. Vel, inclinavit caelos, idest praedicatores, et
descendit, faciens eos dicere capacia hominibus. Et caligo, idest
diabolus et omnes mali, sub pedibus ejus, idest Christi: Psal. 109:
Ponam inimicos tuos scabellum pedum tuorum. De ascensione dicit,
ascendit super Cherubim. Eph. 4: Qui descendit, ipse est et qui
ascendit super omnes caelos ut adimpleret omnia. Super Cherubim,
idest super ordines angelorum: Eph. 1: constituens eum ad dexteram
suam in caelestibus super omnem principatum et potestatem et
virtutem et dominationem etc.. Et omnia subjecit sub pedibus ejus,
et ipsum dedit caput super omnem ecclesiam, quae est corpus ipsius:
Hier. 32: fortissime, magne, potens, Dominus exercituum nomen tibi,
magnus consilio et incomprehensibilis cogitatu.
He descended therefore by humility in taking on human flesh, dying
and teaching things that are humble. Or, he bowed down the heavens,
that is, preachers, and he descended, making them speak things to
men which men were capable of grasping. And darkness, that is devil
and all evil men, under his feet, that is, the feet of Christ: Psalm
109: I will make your enemies your foot stool. He speaks of the
ascension, he ascended above (upon) the Cherubim. Eph. 4: He who
descended is the very one who ascended above all the heavens to make
complete all things. Over (or upon) the Cherubim, that is, over the
orders of angels: Eph. 1: seating him at his right hand in the
heavens above every principality, virtue and domination etc.. And he
has put all things under Christ's feet and has made him the head
over the whole church, which is his body. Jer. 32: O most mighty,
great, and powerful, the Lord of hosts is thy name. Great in
counsel, and incomprehensible in thought.
Et dicit specialiter, super Cherubim, quia non solum ascendit ut est
etiam eis superior, sed quia eis est incomprehensibilis. Volavit,
volavit, duplex volatus intelligitur hic. Primo inquantum fama ejus
post ascensionem in brevi tempore per totum mundum crevit; unde
dicit, super pennas ventorum, idest plus quam pennae quae sparguntur
impulsu ventorum, quia in modico tempore ante tres annos: Psal. 18:
in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum etc.. quia ante destructionem
Hierusalem. Vel, volavit etc. Ascendens in caelum factus
invisibilis, et volavit ab aspectu nostro: Act. 1: nubes suscepit
eum ab oculis eorum.
And he says specially, over the Cherubim, because not only does he
ascend as he is also higher than them, but because he is
incomprehensible to them. He flew, he flew - a two-fold flight is
understood here. First, insofar as his fame grew through the whole
world in a short time after his ascension; hence he says, on the
wings of the winds, that is, more than wings or feathers that are
scattered by a gust of wind, because in a short, less than three
years: Psalm 18: Their sound went through the whole earth etc.,
because it was before the destruction of Jerusalem. Or, he flew etc.
When he ascended into heaven he became invisible, and he flew from
our sight: Acts 1: A cloud took him from our eyes.
Item volavit super pennas ventorum, idest super scientiam angelorum:
Ps. 103: Qui facit angelos suos spiritus etc.. Unde dicitur in Lib.
5 De Causis, quod prima causa superior est omni narratione: et non
deficiunt linguae a narratione ejus, nisi quia deficiunt a
narratione esse ipsius, quia est super omnem causam. Et dicit
commentator, quod ejus non est judicium nec cognitio. Et posuit
tenebras, etc.. sicut dictum est, quae hic inducuntur ad ostendendum
Dei miram potentiam, qua David liberatus est, possunt referri ad
corporales effectus in figura, et ad spirituales in mysterio.
Again, he flew upon the wings of the winds, that is, upon the
knowledge of the angels: Ps. 103: He who made his spirits angels
etc.. Hence we read in Book 5 of De Causis, that the first
cause is higher than all telling: and tongues do not cease from the
telling of it, unless it is because they cease or fail from the
telling of his being, which is above every cause. And the
commentator says that there is no judgement or knowledge of him. And
he made the darkness, etc.. as was said, that here the darkness is
mentioned to show the marvelous power of God, by which David was set
free, and the darkness can refer figuratively to physical effects,
and mystically to spiritual effects.
Primo ergo introducit psalmista secundum quod exponitur secundum
corporales effectus excellentiam divinae potentiae in aere: et hoc
tripliciter: scilicet quantum ad ventos, quantum ad pluvias et
nubes, et quantum ad fulgura. Et quia de ventis supra dictum est,
dicendum est de pluviis in aere. Secundum ergo nubes et pluvias,
invenimus duplicem commutationem in aere; unam de sereno in nubilum,
aliam de nubilo in serenum. Primo ergo ponit primam commutationem.
Secundo secundam, ibi, prae fulgore. circa primum tria facit. primo
ostendit nubilosi temporis obscuritatem.
First, therefore, the psalmist mentions the excellence of the divine
power in the air, as he expounding upon the physical effects. And he
does this in three ways: namely, with respect to the winds, with
respect to the rains and clouds, and with respect to lightning. And
because he spoke above of the winds, he is going to speak of the
rains in the air. With respect to clouds and rains, we find a
twofold change in the air; a change from clear sky to cloudy, and a
change from cloudy to clear. First, therefore, he presents the first
change. Second, the second change, where he says, at the brightness
that was before him. He does three things with respect to the first.
First, he shows the obscurity of the cloudy season.
Secundo adhibet similitudinem. Tertio ponit obscuritatis causam.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: posuit tenebras latibulum suum.
Dicitur quod Deus habitat in caelo. Unde quando nubes occultant
caelum, videtur Deus habitare in occulto: Ezech. 32: Caelum nube
tegam. Et posuit similitudinem de tabernaculo: et ideo dicit, in
circuitu ejus tabernaculum ejus. Tabernaculum enim ponitur et
deponitur sicut nubes. Dicit, tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris.
Consequenter agit de secunda. Prae fulgore etc. et utitur tali
similitudine: quando venit lux, expelluntur tenebrae; et sic Deo
ostendente lumen suum, fugit obscuritas nebularum.
Second, he uses a likeness. Third, he presents the cause of the
obscurity. Therefore he says with regard to the first: he made the
darkness his covert. It is said that God dwells in heaven. Hence
when the clouds cover heaven, God seems to dwell in a hidden place:
Ezech. 32: I will cover the heaven with cloud. And he presents a
comparison with a tent: and therefore he says, his tent around him.
A tent is set up and taken down like the clouds. He says, the dark
water in the clouds of the air. Following this, he treats the
second. At the brightness etc., and he uses a likeness: when the
light comes, the darkness is cast out; and so when God shows his
light, the obscurity of the clouds flees.
Et ideo dicit: prae fulgore in conspectu ejus nubes transierunt,
prae fulgore luminis a facie tua nubes transierunt, sicut fulgore
sive splendore solis, nubes fugiunt et liquefiunt, ut in Lib. Meteo.
dicitur. Dali vel titiones ponuntur in transitu nubium: quia similem
causam generationis habet grando et fulgur, sive ignis. Antiqui vero
dicunt, quod generantur in loco supremo; quod ostendit fortiorem
congelationem a forti frigore causari. Unde plus requirit de frigore
nix quam aqua: pluviae et grando plus quam nix: et tantum potest
esse frigus, quod statim condensat in grandinem: aliquando prius in
aquam, et postea in grandinem. Et dicunt, quod vapores superius
elevati congelantur multum, et ideo generantur grossi grandines.
And thus he says: at the brightness in your sight the clouds pass,
at the brightness of the light from your face the clouds pass, as at
the brightness or splendor of the sun, the clouds flee and are
dissolved, as we read in the Book of Meteorology. Torches or sparks
are made in the passing of the clouds, because hail and lightning,
or fire, have a similar cause of generation. The ancients said that
they are generated in the highest place: which shows that they are
causes by a stronger freezing from a stronger cold. Hence snow
requires more cold than water: rain and hail require more than snow:
and the cold can be so great that it at ounce condenses into hail:
sometimes first into water, and then into hail. And they say, that
vapors that are raised higher are frozen greatly, and therefore
larger hailstones are made.
Sed philosophus e contra dicit, quod grossiores essent in montibus,
et in hyeme: cujus contrarium videmus, quia grossiores sunt in
valle, et fiunt in vere et autumno, et generantur in loco propinquo.
Item secundum philosophum, aliquando veniunt angulares, quod est
signum quod veniunt de propinquo: anguli enim citius liquefiunt.
Unde sciendum, quod naturale est quod oppositum fortius agat in
oppositum. Constat autem quod in nubibus admiscetur frigidum et
calidum; ergo quando calor aeris circumstans constringit frigidum
quod non potest consumere, tunc frigidum agit interius circumdante
But the philosopher says on the contrary, if this were so they would
be thicker in the mountains and in the winter: but we see the
opposite, that hailstones are thicker in the valley, and they happen
in the spring and autumn, and they are generated in a place nearby.
Again, according to the philosopher, sometimes they come at an
angle, which is a sign that they come from nearby: for when they
come at an angle they melt more quickly. Hence we should know, that
it is natural that one opposite acts more strongly upon the other
opposite. It is well known that that in the clouds, heat and cold
are mixed; therefore when the heat of the air surrounds and
constricts the cold that it cannot consume, then the cold acts
inside the heat that surrounds it on the outside.
Titiones autem cadentes habent duplicem causam generationis: unam
per fumum superius ascendentem usque ad locum inflammationis, qui
inflammatur; et sic secundum inflammationem descendit quousque
invenit materiam combustibilem. Et hoc tetigit quando dixit,
carbones succensi sunt ab eo. Et hic tangit alium modum, qui est per
contrariam resistentiam. In nube autem aliquando est aliquid
calidum, et istud a frigido exteriori constringitur interius et
multiplicatur, ita quod materiam grossam adducit et cadit: et ideo
carbones, ignis et grando habent similem generationem, scilicet
constrictionem frigoris vel caloris, ut dictum est. Dicit ergo, prae
fulgore in conspectu ejus etc.. Et haec transierunt simul cum
carbone et grandine, quae generantur ex nubibus, ut dictum est.
Falling firebrands have a double cause of generation: one by smoke
that rises to the place of inflammation, which is inflamed; and thus
according to inflammation it descends until it finds combustible
material. He touched upon this when he said, coals are lit by it.
And here he touches upon another way, which is by contrary
resistance. Sometimes in a cloud there is something hot, and this is
constrained within by heat outside of it and it is multiplied, so
that it draws to itself thick material and falls: and thus coals,
fire and hail have a similar generation, namely, the constriction of
cold or heat, as was said. He says therefore, at the brightness in
his sight etc.. And these pass at the same time as the coal and hail
which are generated from the clouds, as was said.
(i) Hic agit de tertia permutatione. Et primo de tonitruo. Secundo
de fulgoribus, ibi, Misit sagittas. Sciendum quod psalmista loquitur
hic secundum hanc similitudinem, quod quicquid fit in caelo,
attribuatur Deo. Unde sonum auditum in caelo accipit, quasi vox Dei
esset. Est autem duplex sonus in caelo. Unus qui est in tonitruo; et
hic, licet aliqui dicant extinctionem ignis in nube, psalmista
reprobat, et dicit quod fit per concussionem ventorum: ita et nubes.
Et ideo psalmista dicit, intonuit de caelo Dominus.
(i) Here he speaks of the third change. First, about thunder.
Second, about strokes of lightning, where he says, He sent his
arrows. We should know that the psalmist is speaking here according
to a likeness, that whatever happens in the sky is attributed to
God. Hence he regards a sound in the sky as if it were the voice of
God. There are two kinds of sounds in the sky. One is the sound in
thunder; and here, although some say it is the extinguishing of fire
in a cloud, the psalmist disagrees, and he says that it happens by
winds striking together: and the same with clouds. And therefore the
psalmist says, The Lord thundered from heaven.
Item aliquando nubes grossae ex quibus grandines generantur
quandoque cum sonitu: unde philosophus dicit, quod aliquando ante
grandinem est fragor nubium, aliquando non: sicut enim vapor calidus
et siccus expulsus a frigido, scindens nubem facit sonum, ut patet
in fulgure, sic vapor humidus congelatus in grandinem, et expulsus a
calido, scindit aliqualiter et facit sonum. Et ideo dicit,
Altissimus dedit vocem suam, idest manifestavit potentiam suam et
sequitur, grando et carbones ignis, quae ex his nubibus generantur,
ut dictum est. Vel sic, intonuit de caelo. Nota quod aliquando ad
locum superiorem ascendit vapor humidus: et quia est de natura
aquae, fiunt ex eo impressiones humidae, quae sunt nebula, ros,
caligo, pluvia, grando, et nix, et hujusmodi.
Again, sometimes (there are) thick clouds from which hailstones are
generated, occasionally with sound: hence the philosopher says, that
sometimes before hail there is a break (or loud sound) in the
clouds, sometimes not: for just as warm and dry vapor that is pushed
out by cold, makes a sound when it breaks apart a cloud, as we see
in lightning, so humid vapor that freezes into hail, and is pushed
out by the warm, breaks the cloud apart to some degree and makes a
sound. And therefore he says, and the Highest gave his voice, that
is, he manifested his power and there follow hail and coals of fire
from which these clouds are generated, as was said. Or thus, he
thundered from heaven. Not that sometimes a humid vapor rises to a
higher place: and because it is of the nature of water, from this
come the impressions of water, which are cloud, frost, darkness,
rains, hail, snow and the like.
Diversificantur autem ista aliquando diversitate quantum ad caloris
et frigoris tenuitatem et spissitudinem. Aliquando enim ascendit
vapor siccus; et si solus ascendit, facit ventos; si autem sit
comprehensus ille vapor siccus in vapore humido, tunc quando vapor
humidus sursum ascendit, et incipit inspissari propter frigus, vapor
siccus in vapore illo humido inclusus facit agitationem magnam et
inflammatur: talis enim vapor cito inflammatur, ut est videre in
vapore qui egreditur de ventre hominis: et haec inflammatio causa
est fulguris et coruscationis.
These are diversified, however, according to the diversity of the
thinness or thickness of heat and cold. For sometimes a dry vapor
rises; and if it alone rises, it causes winds; if, however, the dry
vapor is surrounded by a humid vapor, then the humid vapor rises,
and it begins to thicken or condense because of the cold, and the
dry vapor enclosed in the human vapor causes a great disturbance and
catches fire: for such a vapor is quickly set on fire, as one may
see in the gas that comes from the belly of a man: and the setting
on fire is the cause of lightning and flashing.
Agitatus autem vapor siccus in interioribus nubibus multiplicem
sonum facit. Si etiam sic inflammatus percutiat latera nubis, et non
scindat, tunc micat non clare; sicut si aliquis aliquem splendorem
videret per pannum: est enim nubes aliquantulum pervia, unde
aliqualiter videtur. Sonat autem sicut sonus flammae in medio
incendio. Aliquando etiam sine inflammatione, et per consequens sine
coruscatione fit sonus, quasi tumultuans: et hoc fit cum percutit,
non inflammatus in lateribus nubis. Si autem percutiat latera et
scindat, tamen cum difficultate quadam, et hoc in parte grossiori
nubis, tunc est terribilis sonus, quasi aliquis pannum immensae
latitudinis scinderet, et tunc visus fulguris vel coruscationis est
curvus: quia non recte egreditur de nube, ut dictum est.
A dry vapor that is shaken in the inner parts of clouds makes a
multiple sound. If it is on fire and strikes the sides of a cloud
and it does not break the cloud, then it does not flash clearly; it
is as if someone would see something bright through a piece of
cloth; for a cloud is somewhat transparent, hence the light is seen
to some degree. It makes a sound like the sound of the flame in the
middle of a blaze. Sometimes as well it is without being set on
fire, and consequently there is a sound of tumult without any
flashing; and this happens when it strikes in the sides of the cloud
but has not been set aflame. If it strikes the sides and breaks
them, but only with some difficulty, and this is the thicker part of
the cloud, then there is a terrible sound, as if a piece of cloth of
immense width was being torn, and then visible thunder or flash is
curved: because it does not come straight out of the cloud, as was
Aliquando scindit nubem virtute magna et quasi subito, et totus
vapor simul egreditur; et tunc sonat sicut vesica inflammata, vel si
uter inflatus frangeretur super caput alicujus: et percutit aerem
percussione fortissima. Aliquando vapor ille siccus ex inflatione
crescit, et quaerens majorem locum facit dissolvere nubem subito, et
sonare ad modum viridium lignorum crepidantium in igne, vel ovorum
maxime; et hoc maxime apparet in castaneis, quibus in igne positis
cum humidum incipit resolvi, et majorem locum quaerere, frangit
testam resistentem, et cum impetu et sono magno exit.
Sometimes it breaks the cloud with great power and suddenly, and all
the vapor leaves at the same time; and then it sounds like a bladder
on fire, or if an inflated bag were broken over someone's head: and
it strikes the air with a loud bang. Sometimes this dry vapor grows
from inflation, and as it seeks more space it cause the cloud to
dissolve suddenly, and to sound like green wood rattling in fire, or
most greatly of eggs; and this appears most readily in chestnuts
when they are placed in fire, when the wetness begins to be broken
down and to seek more room, and it breaks the resisting shell and
comes out with force and a great sound.
Aliquando etiam non valens exire extinguitur; et sonat ad modum
ferri candentis in aqua extincti; quem sonum vocat philosophus
sisinum, vel stridorem. Aliquando etiam ille vapor facit diversa
foramina in locis nubis minus spissis, et tunc facit quasi sonum
sibili, sicut ventus quando exit per foramina. Aliquando antequam
incendatur erumpit de nube, et tunc sonat sicut folles fabriles cum
Sometimes as well it is not able to come out and is extinguished;
and it sounds like a piece of glowing hot iron put out in water; and
the philosopher calls this sound sisinum, or hissing. Sometimes also
the vapor makes various holes in the less thick places in the cloud,
and then it makes something like a whistling sound, as when the wind
passes through holes. Sometimes before it is set on fire it bursts
out of the cloud, and then it sounds like a craftman's bellows when
(k) Fulgura. Hic describit motum fulgurum, et comparat ea sagittae
propter vehementiam venti a quo moventur. Et dissipavit eos,
scilicet peccatores, qui aliquando ex eis moventur: secundum
diversitatem enim ventorum est diversitas motus fulguris: nam sicut
superius cum de modo ventorum agebatur dixit, volavit volavit etc.
ut ostenderet diversum modum ventorum, ita hic dicit, fulgura etc.
ut ostendat diversum motum fulgurum. Dicit, conturbavit eos, quia
dicit Plinius (lib. 2, c. 12), quod secundum fulgura sunt
augurationes; quia quandoque est bonum signum, scilicet quando fiunt
ab oriente: aliquando non est bonum; et ideo homines augurantes
conturbantur propter praesagia futurorum.
(k) Lightning. Here he describes the motion of lightning bolts, and
he compares them to arrows on account of the force of the wind by
which they are moved. And he scattered them (he troubled them -
Douay Rheims), that is, sinners, who are sometimes moved by these
things: the motion of lightning varies depending on the diversity of
winds: for just as he said above when he was treating the mode of
winds, he flew, he flew etc., to show the diverse mode of winds,
here he says, lightning etc., to show the diverse motion of
lightning bolts. He says, he troubled them, because Pliny says (book
2, c. 12), that auguries depend on lightning; because it is
sometimes a good sign, namely, when it comes from the east:
sometimes it is not good; and therefore the men who perform auguries
are disturbed by the presages of future events.
(l) Et apparuerunt. Hic agit de generatione aquarum, quae ex
aliquibus principiis emanant, quae fontes dicuntur, ex quibus est
omnis generatio aquarum. Hi autem dupliciter generantur. Aliquando
ex causa consueta et naturali: sicut cum vapores super terram
elevantur, et ex hac elevatione infrigidantur superius, et
descendunt et fiunt pluviae: ita etiam ex calore terrae interius, et
quando vapores non exeunt, congregantur et resolvuntur in aquam, et
fiunt fontes aquarum. Sicut pluviae generantur in aere, ita fontes
in terra; et ideo circa montes a quibus vapores non exeunt, fiunt
(l) And the fountains of water appeared. Here he discusses the
generation of water, which flows from certain beginnings what are
called fountains, from which is all the generation of waters.
Fountains are generated in two ways. Sometimes they are generated by
the usual and natural cause: just as when vapors are raised above
the earth, and they are made cold from being raised to a higher
place, and they fall and become rain: so also from the heat within
the earth, when vapors do not come out, they are gathered together
and resolve into water, and they become fountains of water. Just as
rains are generated in the air, so fountains in the water; and so
fountains appear around mountains from which vapors do not come out.
Et hoc est quod dicit, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Aliquando
generantur fontes ex subversione terrae ex terraemotu, ex cujus
commotione apparent venae aquae in profundo terrae submersae; et
ideo dicit, et revelata sunt fundamenta orbis terrarum. Philosophus.
Subversio est a vento intus incluso, sicut ventus in aere commovet
aerem. Sed quando retinetur ventus fit terraemotus: et uterque
ventus videtur ira Dei.
And this is what he says, the fountains of water appeared. Sometimes
fountains are generated by the upsetting of the earth by earthquake,
from which commotion the veins of water submersed in the depth of
the earth appear; and therefore he says, and the foundations of the
earth were revealed. The Philosopher: the upset is from wind that is
enclosed within the earth, just as wind in the air moves the air.
But when it is kept back, the wind becomes becomes an earthquake:
and either kind of wind seems to be the anger of God.
Et ideo dicit facta per terram, sicut terraemotum. Mystice secundum
spirituales effectus: et sicut supra ostensum est mysterium
incarnationis signans ipsam incarnationem per quam descendit, et
ascensionem; ita hic designantur ea quae secuta sunt post. Primo
ergo ostendit ejus occultationem. Secundo ecclesiae congregationem,
ibi, in circuitu ejus. Tertio apostolorum praedicationem, ibi,
tenebrosa aqua. Quantum ad primum dicit, posuit tenebras.
And therefore he says, made by the earth, like an earthquake. In a
mystical sense, this concerns spiritual effects: and as the mystery
of the incarnation was shown above, presenting a sign of the
incarnation by which he descended, and the ascension, so here are
designated the events that followed. First he shows the hiding away
of Our Lord. Second, the congregation of the Church, where he
writes, around him. Third, he shows the preaching of the apostles,
where he writes, dark water. With respect to the first, he presents
Glossa distinguit quadrupliciter tenebras. Primo humanitatem: Ezech.
32: solem nube tegam. Isa. 45: Vere tu es Deus absconditus. Secundo
species sacramentales, sicut baptismus, et alia sacramenta, in
quibus divina virtus operatur secrete. Tertio latuit in fide
fidelium: 2 Cor. 5: Quamdiu sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a Domino.
The gloss distinguishes four kinds of darkness. First, the humanity
(of Christ): Ezech. 32: I will cover the sun with a cloud. Isa. 45:
Truly you are the hidden God. Second, sacramental species, such as
baptism and other sacraments, in which the divine power works
secretly. Third, he was hidden in the faith of the believers: 2 Cor.
5: As long as we are in the body, we are away from the Lord.
Quarto latenter operatur aliquid per malos, qui sunt tenebrae: Jo.
1: Lux in tenebris lucet, et tenebrae eam non comprehenderunt.
Aliquando mali permittuntur aliquid facere contra sanctos; sed his
tenebris existentibus, tabernaculum ejus, idest ecclesia, est in
circuitu ejus: Ps. 45: Sanctificavit tabernaculum suum Altissimus:
Apo. 21: Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus etc. Per fidem et
caritatem, inquantum sibi inhaerent tamquam medio, qui eis
aequaliter favet, ut dicit glossa.
Fourth, he works something in a hidden way through evil people, who
are darkness: John 1: The light shone in the darkness, and the
darkness could not comprehend it. Sometimes, evil people are allowed
to do something against holy people; but although these darknesses
exist, his tabernacle, that is, the church, is around him: Ps. 45:
The Most High has made holy his tabernacle: Apoc. 21: Behold the
tabernacle of God with men, etc. By faith and charity, insofar as
these inhere in him as in a medium, he who treats all equally, as
the gloss says.
Tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris. Hic agit de praedicatione
apostolorum. Et primo ponit qualitatem praedicationis. Secundo
conditionem praedicantium, ibi, nubes. Tertio praedicationis
effectum, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Dicit ergo, tenebrosa aqua,
idest doctrina, in nubibus, idest in prophetis et praedicatoribus.
Hos vocat nubes, quia a terrenis elevati in nubibus compluunt verbum
Dei: Isa. 60: Qui sunt isti qui ut nubes volant etc.. et 45: Rorate
caeli desuper, et nubes pluant justum.
Dark water in the clouds of the air. Here he is discussing the
apostles' preaching. And first, he presents the quality of the
preaching. Second, the condition of those who preach, where he says,
clouds. Third, the effect of the preaching, where he says, the
fountains of water appears. He says therefore, dark water, that is,
doctrine, in the clouds, that is, in the prophets and preachers. He
calls them clouds, because they are raised from earthly things in
the clouds and fulfil the word of God: Isa. 60: Who are these who
fly like clouds etc.. and 45: Drop down dew, you heavens, from
above, and let the clouds rain the just.
Vel dicit, in nubibus aeris, idest apostolis elevatis a terra: Isa.
5: Mandabo nubibus ne pluant super eam imbrem. Et dicuntur apostoli
aqua tenebrosa in comparatione ad fulgorem, idest Christum, qui
apparebit videntibus eum; 1 Cor. 13: Videmus nunc per speculum in
aenigmate, tunc autem facie ad faciem. Vel aliter, et sic punctetur:
tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris: prae fulgore in conspectu ejus
nubes transierunt: postea sequitur, grando et carbones ignis etc..
Or he says, in the clouds of the air, that is, in the apostles
raised from the earth: Isa. 5: And I will command the clouds to rain
no rain on it (the vineyard). And the apostles are called dark water
in comparison with lightning, that is, Christ, who shall appear to
those who see him; 1 Cor. 13: We see now through a mirror unclearly,
then we will see face to face. Or otherwise, and in way it is
punctuated: dark water in the clouds of the air: at the brightness
in his sight the clouds passed: after that it follows, hail and
coals of fire etc..
Et distinguitur duplex doctrina: scilicet prophetarum, et haec est
obscura, quia velamen habet, ut dicitur 2 Cor. 3: usque in hodiernum
diem idipsum velamen in lectione veteris testamenti manet non
revelatum, quoniam in Christo evacuatur. Ideo dicitur, tenebrosa
aqua in prophetis, idest doctrina. Sed doctrina novi testamenti est
clara; et ideo dicit, Prae fulgore; tota est una dictio, idest
fulgida quia, ut dicitur Eph. 3: aliis in generationibus non est
agnitum: Ps. 147: Non fecit taliter omni nationi.
And he distinguishes two kinds of doctrine: namely, that of the
prophets, and this doctrine is obscure, because it has a veil, as is
said in 2 Cor. 3: the selfsame veil remains, not being lifted to
disclose the Christ in whom it is made void. Therefore is says, dark
water in the prophets, that is, doctrine. But the doctrine of the
New Testament is clear; and therefore he says, At the brightness;
all of this is one saying, that is, bright because as it says in
Eph. 3: this was not known in other generations: Ps. 147: He has not
acted such toward every nation.
Consequenter agit de ipsis doctoribus, et comparantur nubibus,
sagittis et fulgoribus: nubibus pro praedicatoribus. Et dicit tria.
Primo eorum transitum; nubes. Qualitatem praedicationis, grando et
carbones ignis. Auctoritatem praedicandi, intonuit. Nubes, idest
apostoli, transierunt, de Judaeis ad gentes: Job. 37: Nubes spargunt
lumen suum, quae lustrant per circuitum. Act. 13: Vobis oportebat
primum loqui verbum Dei; sed quia etc.. Grando nocet multum
fructibus et floribus, et eorum praedicatio fuit quasi grando
Consequently, he talks about the teachers themselves, and they are
compared to clouds, arrows and lightning flashes: clouds for
preachers. And he says three things. First, their passing: clouds.
The quality of the preaching: hail and coals of fire. The authority
of the preaching: he thundered. Clouds, that is, the apostles,
passed, from the Jews to the Nations: Job 37: Clouds spread his
light, which go round about. Act 13: You must first speak the word
of God; but because etc.. Hail causes much damage to fruits and
flowers, and their preaching was like a hail of threatening.
Et carbones ignis, idest verba inflammantia; et auctoritas, quia
Dominus per eos loquebatur. Unde, intonuit de caelo Dominus, idest
ipsis apostolis intonuit verba comminationis, Matth. 10: Non enim
vos estis qui loquimini sed spiritus patris vestri qui loquitur in
vobis etc.. Et altissimus dedit vocem suam, scilicet mansuetudinis
inflammando: Jac. 1: in mansuetudine suscipite insitum verbum etc..
And coals of fire, that is verbs that set on fire; and authority,
because the Lord was speaking through them. Hence, the Lord
thundered from heaven, that is, he thundered the words of
threatening by (or to) the apostles themselves, Matth. 10: For it is
not you who are speaking but the spirit of your father who speaks in
you.. And the Most High gave his voice, that is a voice of meekness,
by setting on fire: James 1: in meekness receive the ingrafted word
Et primo sequitur verbum, grando, ex secundo, carbones ignis. Vel
aliter, intonuit, super Christum: Joan. 12: Venit vox de caelo
dicens: et clarificavi, et iterum clarificabo; dicebat turba quae
audiebat tonitruum factum esse. Et Altissimus dedit vocem suam, in
transfiguratione. Luc. 3: Hic est filius meus dilectus. Misit
sagittas. Comparantur hic isti doctores sagittis propter fervorem
Spiritus Sancti in eis: Isa. 49: Posuit me quasi sagittam electam.
Et 27: Qui egredientur impetu a jacob, et implebunt faciem orbis
And first the word is followed by hail, and from the second there
follow coals of fire. Or otherwise, he thundered, over Christ: John
12: There came a voice from heaven saying: I have glorified him, and
I will glorify him again; the crowd who heard this said that there
was thunder. And the Most High gave his voice, in the
transfiguration. Luke 3: This is my beloved son. He sent arrows.
These teachers are compared to arrows on account of the fervor of
the Holy Spirit in them: He has made me like a chosen arrow. And 27:
They shall rush in unto Jacob...and they shall fill the face of the
world with seed.
Et dissipavit eos, quia aliis odor vitae in vitam, aliis fuerunt
odor mortis in mortem. 2 Cor. 2: Fulgura multiplicavit. Haec dicit
propter claritatem miraculorum: Job. 38: Numquid mittes fulgura et
ibunt et reverentia dicent tibi, adsumus. Et conturbavit eos, idest
fecit eos obstupescere Act. 3, dicitur de miraculo petri, quod
repleti sunt omnes stupore et extasi in eo quod contigerat.
And he scattered them, because for some they were the odor of life
unto life, for others they were the odor of death unto death. 2 Cor.
2: He multiplied lightning flashes. He says this on account of the
clarity of miracles: Job 38: Can you send lightnings and will they
go, and will they return and say to you, here we are? And he
disturbed them, that is, he made them silent in wonderment - Act 3,
it speaks of the miracle of the rock, that all were filled with
wonder and awe at what happened.
Apparuerunt fontes. Hic ponitur effectus praedicationis. Et primo
ponitur effectus. Secundo principium, ab increpatione. Et est duplex
effectus. Unus ostenditur cum dicit, apparuerunt fontes aquarum,
idest documenta sapientiae: Isa. 41: Aperiam in supinis collibus
flumina, et in medio camporum fontes: ponam desertum in stagna
aquarum, et terram inviam in rivos aquarum. Item 12: Haurietis aquas
in gaudio de fontibus salvatoris.
The fountains appeared. Here is presented the effect of preaching.
And first is presented the effect. Second the principle, from thy
rebuke. And there is two effects. One is shown web he says, the
fountains of water appeared, that is, the teachings of wisdom: Isa.
41: I will open rivers in the high hills, and fountains in the
middle of the fields: I will make the desert into pools of water,
and the impassable land into rivers of water. Again, chapter 12: You
will draw water in joy from the fountains of the Savior.
Vel dona Spiritus Sancti: Zach. 13: Erit fons patens domui david et
habitatoribus Hierusalem, in ablutionem peccatoris et menstruatae.
Alius effectus ponitur cum dicit, Revelata sunt fundamenta: scilicet
sancti patriarchae, supra quos fides nostra fundata est; quia quod
in eis dictum vel factum est figuraliter, revelatum est per
apostolos. Principium autem horum est, quando Christus incoepit
increpare Matth. 4: poenitentiam agite; appropinquavit etc.. Luc.
13: nisi poenitentiam egeritis, omnes simul peribitis. Ab
inspiratione spiritus irae tuae, quando inspiravit quod omnes
turbaremur contra peccata.
Or the gifts of the Holy Spirit: Zach. 13: In that day there shall
be a fountain open to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of
Jerusalem, for the washing of the sinner and of the unclean woman.
Another effect is presented when he says, the foundations were
revealed: that is, the holy patriarchs, upon whom our faith is
founded; because what was said or happened in them in figurative
sense, is revealed by the apostles. The first of these effects is
when Christ began to rebuke, Matth. 4: Repent and approach etc. Luke
13: Unless you do penance, you will all perish together. From the
inspiration of the spirit of your anger, when he inspired all to be
stirred up against sins.
(m) Misit. Supra egit psalmista de potentia liberantis; hic
prosequitur per ordinem beneficium liberationis: et circa hoc duo
facit. Primo agit gratias de liberatione quantum ad praeterita.
Secundo quantum ad futura quae sperat, ibi, et ero immaculatus cum
(m) He sent. Above the psalmist discussed the power of the one who
sets free; here he continues in order about the benefit of
liberation: and in this regard he does two things. First, he gives
thanks for liberation with regard to things past. Second, with
regard to future things for which he hopes, where he writes, and I
will be immaculate with him.
Circa primum tria ponit. Primo narrat a quibus sit liberatus.
Secundo liberationem, ibi, et factus est. Tertio liberationis
causam, ibi, salvum me fecit. circa primum duo facit. Primo se
ostendit liberatum a magnis tribulationibus. Secundo exponit quomodo
tribulationes sint magnae, ibi, eripuit me.
As to the first, he presents three things. First he tells who it is
from whom he was set free. Second, the liberation itself, where he
says, and the Lord became my protector. Third, the cause of
liberation, where he says, and he saved me. As to the first, he does
two things. First, he shows that he himself has been freed from
great trials. Second, he shows how the trials were great, where he
says, he delivered me.
Dicit glossa secundum litteram, misit de summo; quasi dicat: Deus
potens est, quia omnia praedicta facit, scilicet commovere etc.
Intonuit etc. Habens summam potestatem. Et hoc, de summo, scilicet
potestate accepit me, eripiendo; et assumpsit me, idest elevavit me:
protegendo de aquis multis, idest de multis tribulationibus.
The gloss says literally, he sent from the highest; as if to say:
God is powerful, because he does all that is foretold, namely, to
move things etc. He thundered etc., having the highest power. And
the phrase, from the highest, namely by power he received me in
delivering me; and he took me up, that is, he raised me, in
protecting me from many waters, that is, from many trials.
Ps. 33: Multae tribulationes justorum, et de omnibus etc.. Eccl. 51:
Liberasti me de portis tribulationum quae circumdederunt me, et a
pressura flammae quae circumdedit me. Mystice misit Deus proprium
filium suum de summo, idest de caelo: Joan. 8: Descendi de caelo,
non ut faciam voluntatem meam etc.. Hoc est quod petebat: Psal. 143:
Emitte manum tuam de alto.
Ps. 33: Many are the trials of the just, and from all of them etc..
Eccl. 55: He set me free from the gates of the trials that
surrounded me, and from the pressing of the flame that surrounded
me. Mystically, God sent his own son from the highest, that is, from
heaven: John 8: I came down from heaven, not to do my own will etc..
That is what he requested: Psal. 143: I will send my hand from on
Et liberavit me de aquis multis. Ps. 18: a summo caelo egressio ejus
etc.. Vel Spiritum Sanctum: Thren. 1: De excelso misit ignem. Et
accepit me, infirmum ad sanandum. Et assumpsit me de aquis multis,
scilicet baptismi, vel de multitudine peccatorum. Vel, misit de
summo, idest viris justis gratiam suam: Jac. 1: omne datum etc.. Et
accepit me, ad poenitentiam: Isa. 40: Sicut pastor gregem suum
pascet, in brachio suo congregabit agnos etc.. Oseae 11: Ego quasi
nutritius Ephraim, portabam eum in brachiis meis. Vel populorum:
quia fideles de multitudine gentium sunt assumpti.
And he set me free from many waters. Ps. 18: from the highest heaven
his going forth etc.. Or the Holy Spirit: Lamentations 1: He sent
fire from on high. And he received me when I was infirm to heal me.
And he took me up from the many waters, namely baptism, of from a
multitude of sins. Or, he sent from on high, that is, he sent his
grace to just men: James I: every gift etc.. And he received me, to
penance: Isa. 40: Like a shepherd feeds his flock, I will gather my
sheep in my arm etc.. Hos 11: And I like a foster father carried
Ephraim in my arms. Or of the peoples: because the faithful were
raised from among the multitude of the nations.
(n) Eripuit. Hic probat quomodo tribulationes sunt multae. Et primo
ex conditione inimicorum. Secundo ex persecutione eorum, ibi,
quoniam confortati sunt. Conditio inimicorum nociva est valde, quia
potentes et odientes; unde, eripuit me de inimicis meis fortissimis,
et ab his qui oderunt me.
(n) He delivered me. Here he shows how the tribulations are many in
number. First, from the condition of the enemies. Second, from their
persecution, where he writes, for they were too strong. The
condition of the enemies is that of being very harmful, because they
are powerful and hateful; hence he writes, He has delivered me from
my enemies most strong, and from those who hated me.
Potentes mystice sunt peccata carnalia: Eccl. 18: Si praestes animae
tuae concupiscentias ejus, faciet te in gaudium inimicis tuis: Isa.
49: Numquid tollitur a forti praeda? odientes sunt daemones. Exod.
1: oderunt aegyptii filios israel: psal. 88: Concidam a facie ipsius
inimicos ejus etc.. Consequenter ponitur persecutio.
The powerful ones in a mystical sense are sins of the flesh: Eccl.
18: If you give to your soul her desire, she will make you a joy to
your enemies. Isa. 49: Shall the pray be taken from the strong? The
hateful ones are the demons. Exod. 1: The Egyptians hated the sons
of Israel: ps. 88: I will cut off his enemies from before his face
etc.. Then persecution is presented.
Dupliciter potest quis liberari ab inimicis: vel quod non permittat
se vinci, vel quod fugiat. Utrumque autem excludit a se. Primo, quia
fortes et confortati, idest multiplicati, vicerunt eum, nec potuit
fugere: et hoc est quod dicit, praevenerunt me, praecludentes modo
viam ad fugiendum: Thren. 4: velociores fuerunt persecutores nostri
aquilis caeli, super montes persecuti sunt nos; et hoc, in die
afflictionis, quia tunc homo debilior est quando est afflictus:
Thren. 1: omnes persecutores ejus apprehenderunt eam inter
Someone may be freed from his enemies in two ways: either he does
not allow himself to be defeated, or he flees. The writer excludes
both possibilities in his own case. First, because they are strong
and have been made very strong, that is, they have grown great in
number, they have defeated him, nor could he flee: and this is what
he says, they came before me, shutting off the path to escape:
Lamentations 4: My persecutors were faster than the eagles of the
sky, they have pursued over over the mountains; and this phrase, in
the day of affliction, because when a man is afflicted he is weaker:
Lamentations 1: all his persecutors caught in the midst of his
Auxilium liberatoris ponit duplex. Primo contra invalescentes
hostes; unde dicit et factus est Dominus protector meus, ut non
noceant: Psal. 63: Protexisti me a conventu malignantium etc..
Secundo, contra prudentes; unde sequitur, eduxit me in latitudinem,
de angusto in quo eram positus nesciens quid facerem, dans vias quid
facerem. Vel in latitudinem caritatis: Psal. 118: Latum mandatum
He presents two kinds of help from the liberator. First, against
enemies who are increasing in strength; hence he says, and the Lord
has become my protector, so they do not harm: Psal. 63: He protected
me from the gathering of evil-doers etc. Second, against those who
are prudent; hence it follows, he led me into a wide place, from the
narrow place in which I was put knowing not what I should do, giving
me ways for what I would do. Or in the wideness of charity: Ps. 118:
Very wide is his command.
Causa liberationis est duplex: scilicet divina gratia, et meritum
humanum. Unde dicit, salvum me fecit, quoniam voluit me. Haec est
potentissima causa liberationis, scilicet voluntas sua: Eph. 1: qui
operatur omnia cum consilio voluntatis suae; et tamen subsequenter
operatur ibi aliquid meritum humanum: 1 Cor. 15: gratia Dei in me
vacua non fuit.
There are two causes of liberation: namely, divine grace and human
merit. Hence he says, he saved me, because he was well pleased with
me. This is the most powerful cause of liberation, namely his will:
Eph. 1: who works all things with the counsel of his will; and yet
some human merit also works following this: 1 Cor. 15: The grace of
God has not been empty in me.
Et ideo subdit, retribuet mihi Dominus etc.. Ubi tria facit. Primo
proponit meritum. Secundo in quo consistit. Tertio ponit viam
perveniendi ad hoc meritum. Secunda, ibi, quia custodivi etc..
Tertia, ibi, quoniam omnia judicia. Meritum hominis consistit in
duobus: scilicet in operatione boni, et in evitatione mali: ps. 33:
Declina a malo, et fac bonum.
And thus he adds, the Lord will reward me etc. Here he does three
things. First he sets forth the merit. Second, he sets forth in what
the merit consists. Third, he shows the way to approach this merit.
The second point, where he says, because I have kept etc. The third
point, where he says, because all judgements. A man's merit consists
in two things: namely, in the working of good, and in the avoidance
of evil: Ps. 33: Turn away from evil, and do good.
Et ideo quantum ad primum dicit, retribuet mihi Dominus secundum
justitiam meam, quam ipse in me operatus est: Sap. 3: justorum
animae in manu Dei sunt et non tanget illos tormentum malitiae etc..
Prov. 11: seminanti justitiam merces fidelis. Quantum ad secundum
dicit, secundum puritatem manuum mearum retribuet mihi, idest
innocentiam: Job 22: Salvabitur innocens, salvabitur autem in
munditia manuum suarum. non privabitur bonis etc.. Ps. 83: Haec
autem justitia consistit in observatione viarum Dei: Ps. 118: Viam
mandatorum tuorum cucurri.
And thus regarding the first he says, the Lord has rewarded me
according to my justice, which he as worked in me: Wisdom 3: the
souls of the just are in God's hand and the torment of malice will
not touch them etc.. Prov. 11: A faithful reward for he who sows
justice. As regards the second he says, he has rewarded me according
to the purity of my hands, that is, the innocence: Job 22: The
innocent will be saved, but he will have saved in the cleanliness of
his hand, he will not be deprived of good things etc.. Ps. 83: But
this justice consists in observing the ways of God: Ps. 118: I have
run the way of your commands.
Et ideo dicit, quia custodivi vias Domini: Job 23: Vestigia ejus
secutus est pes meus: Viam ejus custodivi, et non declinavi ex ea,
et quia non impie gessi, recedendo a Deo, quia per peccatum homo
recedit a Deo, et inquinatur: Ps. 43: non recessit retro cor
nostrum. Quomodo pervenit ad hoc? Quia, omnia judicia ejus in
And therefore he says, because I have kept the ways of the Lord. Job
23: My foot has followed his tracks. I have kept his way, and I have
not departed from it, I because I have not acted impiously by going
away from God, because through sin a man goes away from God and is
soiled: Ps. 43: My heart has not drawn back. How does he arrive at
this? Because, all his judgements are in my view.
Valet valde ad operandum bona et evitanda mala cogitare divina
judicia: Job 19: Fugite a facie gladii, quoniam ultor iniquitatum
est gladius. Et custodivi hoc, quia justitias ejus repuli a me, de
industria peccando: Job 21: Dixerunt Deo, recede a nobis. Et
sequitur, perveniet eis inundatio. Qui ex infirmitate vel ignorantia
peccat, faciliter veniam consequitur.
Thinking upon the divine judgements is very helpful for doing good
and avoiding evil: Job 19: Flee from the face of the sword, because
the avenger of iniquities is the sword. And I have kept this,
because I have not pushed his justices away from me, out of industry
in sinning: Job 21: They said to God, go away from us. And it
followed that waves washed over them. He who sins from weakness or
ignorance easily finds forgiveness.
(o) Et ero. Supra commemoravit psalmista beneficium liberationis de
praeterito; hic de futuro quantum ad spem. Et primo commemorat
beneficia in generali. Secundo in speciali, quae accepit, et quae
sperat, ibi, Deus meus impolluta via ejus. Tertio commendat
(o) And I shall be. Above the psalmist called to mind the benefit of
being set free in the past; here he thinks of the future with regard
to hope. First he calls to minds benefits in general. Second, in a
special sense, the things he has received, and those for which he
hopes, where he says, my God, his way is undefiled. Third, he
commends the divine justice.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit orationem ad deum. Secundo
commendat spem exauditionis, ibi, quoniam tu illuminas. Tria
proponit. Primo propositum perseverandi in innocentia. Secundo
meritum retributionis. Tertio rationem assignat. Secunda, ibi,
retribuet. Tertia ibi, cum sancto sanctus eris.
As to the first, he does two things. First, he proposes prayer to
God. Second, he commends the hope of being heard, where he writes,
because you light. He proposes three things. First, the proposal of
perseverance in innocence. Second, the merit of retribution. Third,
he gives the reason. The second, where he says, and he will reward
me. The third, where he says, with the holy you will be holy.
Dicit ergo, et ero immaculatus cum eo, idest adhaerebo Deo, quia
loquitur ex persona sui et aliorum, quorum quidam innocentes sunt:
et ideo dicit, et ero, idest stabo et perseverabo in innocentia:
Eccl. 31: Beatus vir qui inventus est sine macula; vel, Ero
immaculatus cum eo, idest adhaerebo Deo: 1 Cor. 6: qui autem
adhaeret Deo, unus est spiritus etc., conservans te ab omni macula:
Job 27: donec deficiam, non recedam ab innocentia mea.
He says therefore, and I shall be spotless with him, that is, I will
cling to God, because he is speaking in his own person and in the
persons of others, in whose number the innocent are included: and
thus he says, and I will be, that is, I will stand and I will
persevere in innocence: Eccl. 31: Blessed the man who is found
without stain; or, I will be spotless with him, that is, I will
cling to God. 1 Cor. 6: He who clings to God is one in spirit etc.,
keeping him from all stain: Job 27: until I die, I will not retreat
from my innocence.
Quidam sunt poenitentes: et ad hoc pertinet ne iterum in peccatum
labantur (et ideo dicit, et observabo me ab iniquitate mea): sicut
canis qui revertitur ad vomitum, et sus lota in volutabro luti, 2
Pet. 2 Eccl. 26: In duobus contristatum est cor meum, et in tertio
iracundia mihi advenit. Vir bellator deficiens prae inopia, et vir
sensatus contemptus, et qui transgreditur de justitia in peccatum,
Deus paravit illum ad romphaeam.
Some are those who are penitent; and to this it pertains that they
should not lapse into sin (and therefore he says, and I shall keep
myself from my iniquity): as a dog who returns to his vomit, and a
sow that returns to wallow in the mire after she is washed, 2 Pet.
2. Eccl. 26: At two things my heart is grieved, and the third
bringeth anger upon me: a man of war fainting through poverty, and a
man of sense despised, and he that passes over from justice to sin,
God has prepared such a one for the sword.
Consequenter ponit spem retributionis cum dicit, et retribuet mihi
Dominus secundum justitiam meam. Et est duplex retributio. Una, quae
datur pro bonis impletis: et propter hoc dicit, retribuet mihi
Dominus secundum justitiam meam. Anselmus: justitia est rectitudo
voluntatis propter se servata. Vel secundum opera hominis reddet ei:
Ps. 62: reddet unicuique secundum opera sua.
Following this, he presents the hope of reward when he says, and the
Lord will reward me according to my justice. There are two kinds of
reward. One. which is given for good things that have been
completed: and on this account he says, the Lord has rewarded me
according to my justice. Anselm: justice is the rectitude of the
will observed for the sake of rectitude itself. Or according to a
man's works he renders unto him: Ps. 62: He renders unto each
according to his works.
Dicit, observabo, et, retribuet, quia si homo aliquando fuit justus
et fecit opera justitiae, et non observat se a peccatis, vel non
conservat se in operibus justitiae, ideo mortificatur, nec meretur
retributionem: Ezech. 18: Omnes justitiae ejus non recordabuntur.
Alia est quae datur pro beneficiis; unde dicit; retribuet secundum
puritatem manuum mearum in conspectu oculorum ejus.
He says, I will keep myself, and, he will reward, because if a man
was just at one time and did works of justice, and did not keep
himself from sins, or did not keep himself in works of justice, he
will suffer death, nor will he merit a reward: Ezech. 18: All his
justices will not be remembers. Another reward is given for
benefits; hence he says; he will reward me according to the purity
of my hands in the sight of his eyes.
Aliquando habent exterius tantum manus, idest operationes puras, et
illis Deus non retribuet: sed quando habent puras in corde
operationes, tunc retribuet. Et hoc est, in conspectu oculorum ejus,
non illis bonis quae sunt in conspectu nostro, sed in conspectu Dei:
Isa. 64: oculus non vidit deus absque te. et quid retribuet?
jucunditatem ineffabilem, et augmentum gratiae, quae proveniunt ex
mandatis Dei servatis: Psal. 18: in custodiendis illis retributio
multa. Et retribuet secundum puritatem manuum mearum, idest operum.
Sometimes they have hands only outwardly, that is, pure works, and
God does not reward such men: but when they have pure works in their
heart, then he rewards. And this is, in the sight of his eyes, not
for the works that are in our sight, but the works that are in God's
sight: Isa. 64: the eye has not seen, O God, besides thee. And what
does he give as reward? Ineffable joy, and increase of grace, which
come from the keeping of God's commands: Psal. 18: in keeping them
there is great reward. And he shall reward me according to the
purity of my hands, that is, of my works.
Dicitur autem opus impurum, ratione carnalis affectus: Isa. 1: manus
vestrae sanguine plenae sunt. Item ratione inanis gloriae: Matth. 6:
Attendite ne justitiam vestram faciatis coram hominibus, ut
videamini ab eis; alioquin mercedem non habebitis. Gregorius:
vecordia est magna agere, et laudi inhiare, quae unde caelum mercari
potuit, inde vanum et transitorium sermonem quaerit.
A work is said to be impure by reason of carnal feeling: Isa. 1:
Your hands are full of blood. Again, by reason of empty glory:
Matth. 6: See that you do not perform your justice before men so as
to be seen by them, otherwise you will not have any reward. Gregory:
It is foolishness to do great things, and to look with longing for
praise. The works could have been used to purchase heaven, but
instead he seeks from them vain and passing words.
(p) Consequenter ponitur ratio retributionis; ideo sequitur, cum
sancto. Circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit rationem retributionis.
Secundo exponit eam, ibi, quoniam tu populum. Primi duo versus
dupliciter possunt intelligi. Uno modo, ut intelligatur ad Deum
loqui; et sic est literalis sensus; quasi dicat, tu Dominus, cum
sancto sanctus eris.
(p) Following this, he presents the reason for the reward; thus it
follows, with the holy. Regarding this, he does two things. First he
presents the reason for the reward. Second, he explains it, where he
says, you will save the humble people. The first two verses can be
understood in two ways. In one way, the words are understood as
being spoken to God; and this is the literal sense; as if he is
saying, you Lord, are holy with the holy.
Et sic dicit duo: scilicet quod Deus sit remunerator et adprobator
bonorum. Secundo, quomodo est reprobator malorum; unde sequitur, et
cum innocente etc.. Et cum perverso perverteris. Est autem sciendum
quod nominat scilicet sanctum, innocentem, et electum. Electus autem
potest dupliciter intelligi. Uno modo a Deo; hoc est commune omnibus
sanctis: Ephes. 1: Elegit nos Deus ante mundi constitutionem etc..
Alio modo dicitur electus qui habet excellentiam innocentiae et
sanctitatis: Cant. 5: Dilectus meus candidus et rubicundus, electus
And thus he says two things: namely that it is God who is the one
rewards and tests the good. Second, how God is the one who reproves
the evil; hence it follows, with the innocent etc.. And with the
perverse you will be perverted. We should know what he names,
namely, holy, innocent and elect. Elect or chosen can be understood
in two ways. One way, by God; this is common to all the saints:
Ephes. 1: God has chosen us before the constitution of the world
etc.. In another way, one who has the excellence of innocence and
holiness is called elect: Songs 5: My beloved is white and ruddy,
chosen from among thousands.
Si primo modo sumatur electus, tunc secundum ponit ex parte nostra,
et tertium ex parte Dei. Si secundo modo, sic proponit duo, quae ex
parte nostra sunt. Primum est operatio boni quae fit propter Deum;
et quae proprie habet rationem sanctitatis: quia omnia quae
ordinantur ad Deum, dicuntur sancta: et hoc est quod dicit, Domine,
tu eris sanctus cum sancto, sanctitatem in eo causando: Lev. 21: ego
Deus qui sanctifico vos.
If elect or chosen is understand in the first way, then he presents
the second on our part, and the third on the part of God. If in the
second way, he proposes two things that are on our part. The first
is the operation of good which happens for the sake of God; and
these things properly have the meaning of sanctity: because all the
things that are ordered to God are called holy: and this is what he
says, Lord, you will be holy with the holy, by causing holiness in
him: Lev. 21: I am God who makes you holy.
Vel sic. Tu eris sanctus effective, idest ostendens te amare et
adprobare sanctitatem: non enim ostendit se nisi per opera;
substantiam enim ejus non videmus. Nec aliter est sanctus cum
sancto, nisi ostendendo sanctitatem: non est enim visibilis nunc
nobis, ut dicamus quod conformat se sancto in motibus exterioribus,
sicut de homine qui diversis diversimode se conformat, maxime
amicis: quia omne animal diligit sibi simile; et quod diligit quis,
Or thus. You will be holy effectively, that is, showing that you
love and approve of holiness: for he does not show himself except
through works; for we do not see his substance. Not otherwise is he
holy with the holy, except by showing holiness: for he is not now
visible to us, so that we say that he conforms himself to the holy
in exterior motions, just as of a man who conforms himself to
diverse people in diverse ways, especially to friends: because every
animal loves what is similar to it; and that which someone loves he
Unde ostendens te sanctum, quando remunerabis, inquit, sanctitatis
opera? Et cum viro innocente innocens eris, effective et
remunerando. Et cum electo, quem tu diligis, electus eris, quia
facies quod ipse te eliget: Joan. 15: Non vos me elegistis, sed ego
elegi vos primordialiter: Deut. 4: dilexit patres tuos, et elegit
semen eorum post eos. Et 26: Deum elegisti hodie, ut sit tibi Deus,
et obedias ejus imperio: et Dominus elegit te hodie, ut sis ei
populus peculiaris, et faciet te excelsiorem cunctis gentibus, ut
sis populus sanctus.
Whence showing that you are holy, when you will remunerate, he says,
the works of holiness? And with the innocent you will be innocent,
effectively also by remunerating. And with the elect, whom you love,
you will be elect, because you cause him to choose you: John 15: You
did not choose me, but I chose you in the beginning: Deut. 4: He has
loved your fathers, and chooses their seed after them. And 26: You
have chosen God today, that he will be God for you, and you will
obey his rule: and God has chosen you today, that you will be to him
a peculiar people, and he will make you higher than all other
nations, so that you will be a holy people.
Vel, electus, idest excellenter separatus. Et cum perverso
perverteris, idest permittes eum esse perversum. Vel perversi sunt
illi qui non sequuntur illos quos debent sequi. Qui ergo non
sequitur voluntatem Dei, videtur perversus. Ergo tu contra
voluntatem Dei, et Deus contra voluntatem tuam; quasi dicat: tu vis
habere beatitudinem, et Deus dabit miseriam: Lev. 26: Si
ambulaveritis mihi ex adverso, et ego contra vos adversus incedam,
et percutiam vos septies propter peccata vestra.
Or elect, that is, separated in an excellent way. And you will be
perverse with the perverse, that is, you will permit him to be
perverse. Or the perverse are those who do not follow the ones they
should follow. Therefore he who does not follow the will of God
seems perverse. Therefore if you are opposed to God's will, God also
is opposed to your will; as if to say: you want to have happiness,
and God will give misery: Lev. 26: If you defy me ... I will also
defy you and will smite you sevenfold for your sins.
Et ideo dicit, cum perverso perverteris, idest agens contra
voluntatem perversorum. Alio modo potest legi, ut referat sermonem
ad aliquem hominem: et sic homo cum sancto homine, vel cum christo
sanctus eris: quia non audies de Deo nisi sanctitatem.
And therefore he says, with the perverse you will be perverted, that
is, acting against the will of perverse people. It may be read in
another way, as referring the words to some man: and so a man with a
holy man, or with Christ you will be holy: because you do not hear
of God anything except holiness.
Exod. 37: Cum viro religioso tracta de sanctitate: et cum innocente
innocens eris, quia secundum conversationem informantur mores: 1
Cor. 15: corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia mala. et cum perverso
perverteris. Eccl. 13: qui tetigerit picem, inquinabitur ab ea, et
qui communicat superbo etc..
Exod. 37: With a religious man discuss holiness: (note: This text
is found with varying words in Eccl. 37, not in Exodus 37) and
with the innocent you will be innocent, because mores take form
according to how time is spent together with others: 1 Cor. 15: Bad
conversations corrupt good mores. And with the perverse you will be
perverse. Eccl. 13: He who touches pitch will be soiled by it, and
he who spends time with the proud etc.
Consequenter exponit praemissa secundum primam lecturam. Quare eris
Domine cum sancto? quia, tu populum humilem salvum facies, idest in
hoc quod humilem salvum facies, ostendit te cum sancto sanctum esse:
Jacobi 4: Humilibus dat gratiam: Matth. 19: Sinite parvulos venire
ad me, talium enim est regnum caelorum: Psalm. 137: Excelsus
Dominus, et humilia respicit.
In what follows he presents the premises according to the first
reading. How will you be, or Lord, with the holy? Because, you save
the humble people, that is, in the fact that you do save the humble
you show that you are holy with the holy: James 4: He gives grace to
the humble: Matth. 19: Allow the little ones to come to me, for of
such is the kingdom of heaven: Psalm 137: High is the Lord, and he
looks upon the humble.
Quare cum perverso perverteris? Quia oculos superborum humiliabis:
Luc. 14: Omnis qui se exaltat humiliabitur: Isa. 2: Oculi sublimes
humiliati sunt, et incurvabitur altitudo virorum. Et dicit, oculos,
quia superbia in hoc consistit, quod homo aspectum suum ad majora
quam sit sua proportio, erigit: Isa. 16: Superbia ejus et arrogantia
ejus plusquam fortitudo ejus. Et ideo Psalm. 130: Domine non est
exaltatum cor meum, neque elati sunt oculi mei.
Why are you perverse with the perverse? Because you will humble the
eyes of those who are proud: Luke 14: Everyone who exalts himself
will be humbled: Isa. 2: The proud eyes are humbled, and the
tallness of men is bent down. And he says, eyes, because pride
consists in this, that a man raises his gaze to things that are
greater than his proportion: Isa. 16: His pride and arrogance are
greater than his strength. And therefore we read in Psalm 130: Lord,
my heart is not exalted, nor are my eyes lifted up.
(q) Quoniam. Hic convertit se ad orationem; quasi dicat: ita justus
es. Quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam. Et duo facit. Primo refert
gratiarum actionem de beneficio suscepto. Secundo ponit petitionem
de suscipiendo, ibi, Deus meus, illumina tenebras meas. Dicit ergo,
tu illuminas etc..
(q) For. Here he turns himself to prayer; as if to say: yes, you are
just. For you light my lamp. And he does two things. First he gives
thanks for the benefit received. Second, he presents a petition for
something to receive, where he says, my God, enlighten my darkness.
He says there, you light etc..
Hoc totum potest secundum litteram dupliciter exponi: ut per
lucernam intelligatur prosperitas, per tenebras intelligatur
adversitas. Sicut quando homo est laetus, videntur sibi clara omnia;
quando est tristis, videntur sibi omnia obscurari. Hoc est ergo quod
dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam domine, quia tu dedisti
mihi prosperitatem, et continue das: illumina tenebras meas, idest
si quid adversitatis remansit in me, expelle et remove a me.
All this can be expounded literally: so that by the lamp we
understand prosperity, by darkness we understand adversity. When a
man is happy, all things seem clear to him; when he is said, all
things seem to be obscured. Therefore this is what he says, for you
light my lamp, Lord, for you have given me prosperity, and continue
to give me prosperity: light my lamp, that is, if there is any
adversity remaining in me, cast it out and remove it from me.
Alio modo potest intelligi moraliter, ut per lucernam intelligatur
mens sive anima hominis: Prov. 20: Lucerna Domini spiramentum
hominis. Mens ergo hominis est quasi lucerna Dei accensa divino
lumine: Psal. 4: Signatum est super nos etc.. Quamdiu sine peccato
sumus, lucerna nostra accensa est, idest anima nostra splendet
lumine gratiae; sed quando aliquid tenebrae corruptibilis carnis
remanet, est extincta: Rom. 7: Ego ipse mente servio legi Dei, carne
autem legi peccati.
In another way it may be understood in a moral sense, so that by the
lamp we may understand the mind or soul of a man: Prov. 20: The
spirit of a man is the lamp of the Lord. Therefore a man's mind is
like the lamp of the Lord lit by divine light: Psal. 4: It is made
as a sign over us etc. As long as we are without sin, our lamp is
lit, that is, our soul shines with the light of grace; but when some
of the darkness of corruptible flesh remains, it is extinguished:
Rom. 7: I myself serve the law of the Lord with my mind, but with my
flesh I serve the law of sing.
Et hoc est quod dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam, idest
quia anima mea illuminata est lumine gratiae. Illumina tenebras
meas, idest remove a me defectus et corruptiones, per quae homo
incidit in tenebras. Vel potest legi allegorice, ut dicantur verba
quasi ex persona Christi, vel cujuscumque viri justi. In ecclesia
sunt multi lucentes, sicut fideles et sancti: Philip. 2: inter quos
lucetis sicut luminaria in mundo, verbum vitae continentes.
And this is what he says, for you light my lamp, that is, for my
soul is lit by the light of grace. Light my darkness, that is,
remove from me defects and corruptions, by which a man falls into
darkness. Or it may be read allegorically, so that the words are
said as if in the person of Christ, or of any other just man. There
are many who shine in the Church, such as the faithful and the
saints: Philip. 2: among whom you shine like lamps in the world,
containing the word of light.
Item multi tenebrosi, sicut infideles et peccatores: Ephes. 5:
eratis aliquando tenebrae etc.. Ergo homo orans pro ecclesia vel
ecclesia pro se, dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam, idest
fideles qui lucent, illumina tenebras, idest peccatores.
Again, there are many who are dark, such as the unfaithful and
sinners: Ephes. 5: Once you were darkness etc.. Therefore when a man
is praying for the Church, or when the Church is praying for itself,
he says, for you light my lamp, that is, the faithful who shine
light the darkness, that is, sinners.
(r) Spem exauditionis ponit cum dicit, quoniam. Hic facit duo. Primo
tangit liberationem a malo. Secundo victoriam super malo. Dicit
ergo, oro quia spero, in te, idest in virtute tua, eripiar a
tentatione, idest a quacumque tribulatione sive impugnatione: 1 Cor.
10: Fidelis Deus qui non patietur vos tentari supra id quod
(r) He presents the hope of being heard when he says, For. Here he
does two things. First, he talks about liberation from evil. Second,
victory over evil. He says therefore, I pray because I hope, in you,
that is in your virtue, I will be rescued from temptation, that is,
from any tribulation or attack: 1 Cor. 10: Faithful is God who does
not suffer you to be tempted over what you are able.
Et in Deo meo transgrediar murum, idest victoriam a peccato virtute
Dei habebo. Tunc enim hostis habet victoriam civitatis, quando
transgreditur murum. Murus iste est quaecumque difficultas quae
impedit nos ad bene operandum, sive peccata quae provocant nos ad
male faciendum. Hieronymus dicit, frangam murum, quia non possumus
esse in mundo sine peccato: 1 Joan. 1: si dixerimus quia peccatum
non habemus etc.. Sed transgredimur, quia superamus illud, dum non
consentimus concupiscentiis ejus.
And in my God I shall go over a wall, that is, I will have victory
over sin by the power of God. For an enemy has victory over a city
when he goes over its wall. This wall is any difficulty that
prevents us from working well, or sins that provoke us to do evil.
Jerome says, I will break the wall, because we cannot be in the
world without sin: 1 John 1: If we shall say that we have no sin
etc.. But we do go over, because we overcome it when we do not
consent to its pleasures.
(s) Sequitur, Deus. Supra commemoravit in generali beneficia quae in
futurum expectat a Deo, quia, in te eripiar etc.: hic in speciali
prosequitur ea. Et notandum, quod loquitur ad modum habentis
adversitatem et adversarios de quibus sperat victoriam: in qua
triplex est gradus. Primo, ut persequatur adversarios fugientes, et
sicut captos destruat. Secundo ut in eis regnet, ibi, et
praecinxisti me. tertia, ut exaltetur, ibi, et eripies me.
(s) Then it says, God. Above, the psalmist called to mind in a
general way the benefits that he expects from God in the future,
because, in you I will be rescued etc.: Here he treats these
benefits in a special way. We should not that he is speaking like
one who has adversity and adversaries over whom he hopes for
victory: in which there are three grades. First, that he may pursue
the adversaries as they flee, capture them and destroy them. Second,
that he may reign among them, where he says, and you have girt me.
Third, that he may be raised, where he says, and you will deliver
Circa primum tria facit. Primo commendat suum adjutorem, scilicet
Deum. Secundo, ostendit quomodo a Deo iam data sunt ei quaedam, per
quae idoneus est ad persequendum eos. Tertio agit de persecutione.
Secunda, ibi, Deus qui praecinxisti. Tertia, ibi, persequar. Prima
in duo. Primo commendat Deum. Secundo commendationem probat, ibi,
quoniam quis etc.. Commendat ergo Deum de tribus: quod sit justus in
opere, verax in sermone, et quod sit misericors in subventione.
Quantum ad primum dicit, eripiar a tentatione, dum considero divinae
justitiae puritatem, quia, Deus meus impolluta via ejus.
He does three things with regard to the first. First, he praises his
helper, namely God. Second, he shows how he has been given by God
some things by which he is fit to pursue them. Third, he talks about
the pursuit. Second, where he says, God who has girt. Third, where
he says, I will pursue. The first is divided into two. First he
praises God. Second he proves his praise, where he says, for who
etc.. He praises God for three reasons: that God is just in his
work, true in his word, and that he is merciful in helping.
Regarding the first he says, I will be delivered from temptation,
while I consider that purity of divine justice, because, My God -
his way is undefiled.
Iterum dum considero ejus dispositionem, quia nihil injustum est in
eo: Ezech. 18: numquid via mea aequa non est, et non magis viae tuae
pravae sunt? Vel via Dei per quam Deus vadit ad animam est
impolluta. Et est: haec charitas: 1 Cor. 12: Adhuc excellentiorem
viam vobis demonstro, idest ut securi eatis. Haec est impolluta,
quia charitas non agit perperam, idest perverse.
Again, when I consider his disposition, because there is nothing
unjust in him: Ezech. 18: Is my way not just, and are your ways
rather not more crooked? Or the way of God by which God comes to the
soul is defiled. And this is: this charity: 1 Cor 12: I show to you
a yet more perfect way, that is, so that you may go securely. This
way is undefiled, because charity does not do anything falsely, that
Vel via Dei est ipse christus, quia peccatum non fecit: Isa. 35: via
sancta vocabitur, et non transibit per eam pollutus: et erit via
recta, ita ut stultus non erret per eam. Vel via Christi est Virgo
Beata: Psal. 76: In mari via tua haec est impolluta: Can. 4: Tota
pulchra es, amica mea etc.. Is. 54: Dilata locum tentorii tui.
Or the way of God is Christ himself, who did not do any sin: Isa.
35: and it shall be called the holy way, and the unclean shall not
pass over it, and this shall be unto you a straight way, so that
fools shall not err therein. Or the way of Christ is the Blessed
Virgin: Psal. 76: In the sea this is your unsoiled way: Songs 4: You
are entirely beautiful, my female friend etc.. Is. 54: Enlarge the
place of thy tent.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, eloquia Domini. Et loquitur ad
similitudinem auri et argenti, quod si sit purum, probatur per
ignem. Unde sicut aurum per ignem purgatum nihil habet impuritatis,
ita sunt purgata verba Domini: Prov. 8: justi sunt omnes sermones
mei, et non est in eis quidquam contrarium atque perversum etc..
Igne examinata: Psal. 11: Eloquia Domini eloquia casta, argentum
As for the second he says, the words of the Lord. And he is speaking
by a likeness of gold and silver, which if it is pure is tried by
fired. Hence, as gold that is purged by fire has no impurity, so the
words of the Lord are purified: Prov. 8: All of my words are just,
and in them there is nothing that is contrary or perverse etc. Tried
by fire: Psal. 11: The words of the Lord are pure words, silver
Et dicuntur igne examinata, scilicet Spiritus Sancti: Job 12: auris
verba dijudicat, et fauces comedentis saporem. Nullus potest
examinare verba nisi habeat ignem Spiritus Sancti: 1 Cor. 2:
Animalis homo non percipit quae sunt Spiritus Dei. Verum, quia est
verax, implebit quod promisit. Et propter hoc dicit, protector est
omnium sperantium in se: Eccl. 2: Quis speravit in Domino, et
And he says, examined by fire, namely, the fire of the Holy Spirit:
Job 12: Does not the ear discern words, and the palate of him who
eats, the taste? No one can test the words unless he has the fire of
the Holy Spirit: 1 Cor. 2: The man who is like an animal does not
perceive the things that are of the Spirit of God. True, because he
is truthful, he carries out what he has promised. And on this
account he says, he is the protector of all who hope in him: Eccl.
2: Who has hoped in the Lord and been confounded?
Consequenter probat commendationem: quia hae sunt proprietates: quod
sit justus, quod sit verax, et quod sit misericors. Si ergo ista
bene conveniunt Deo meo, non quaeras alium. Sed nullus alius Deus
est praeter ipsum. Et ideo dicit, quis Deus praeter Dominum? Quasi
dicat, nullus: Isa. 42: Ego sum Dominus: hoc est nomen meum: Deut.
6: Audi Israel, Dominus Deus tuus unus est.
Following this, he proves his praise: because these are the
properties: that God is just, that he is truthful, and that he is
merciful. If therefore these things are well fitted to my God, do
not seek another. But there is no other God besides him. And
therefore he says, who is God except the Lord? As if to say: none.
Isa. 42: I am the Lord: this is my name: Deut. 6: Hear, Israel, the
Lord your God is one.
In hoc differebant Judaei ab aliis. Et quia alii colebant elementa
mundi, vel homines vel angelos, hi vero dicebantur factores eorum;
sed Judaei colebant verum deum factorem eorum. Dicit ergo quod ipse
est Deus totius creaturae. Secundo, quod ipse colebatur specialiter
a Judaeis. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, quis Deus praeter Dominum,
scilicet totius creaturae factorem?
In this the Jews differ from others. And because others worshiped
the elements of the world, or men, or angles, these were called
their makers; but the Jews worshiped the true God as their maker. He
says therefore that he is the God of every creature. Second, that he
is worshipped especially by the Jews. He says therefore with regard
to the first, who is God except the Lord, namely, the maker of every
Judith 16: Tibi serviat omnis creatura tua. Aut quis Deus praeter
Deum nostrum, specialiter. 1 Reg. 2: non est sanctus ut Dominus:
neque enim est alius extra te, et non est fortis sicut Deus noster:
Psal. 75: Notus in Judaea Deus etc.. Qui dicitur noster specialiter
pietate, et cultura, et unione naturae, et carnis assumptione, et
redemptione. In hoc confunduntur manichaei: quia hic est Deus et
Dominus visibilium, et quod Deus veteris testamenti est verus Deus,
quia nullus Deus praeter eum.
Judith 16: Let all your creatures serve you. Or, who is God except
our God, in a special way. 1 Kings 2: None is holy as the Lord: for
neither is there another apart from you, and there is none strong as
our God: Psal. 75: God is known in Judea etc.. He who is called ours
in a special way by piety, and worship, and the union of nature, and
the taking on of flesh, and the redemption. In this point the
Manicheans are confused: because the is the God and Lord of visible
things, and that the God of the Old Testament is the true God,
because there is no God apart from him.
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