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Josephus: Henry Leeming: Josephus' Jewish War and Its Slavonic Version: A Synoptic Comparison (2003) "This volume presents in English translation the Slavonic version of Josephus Flavius' "Jewish War, long inaccessible to Anglophone readers, according to N.A. Materskej's scholarly edition, together with his erudite and wide-ranging study of literary, historical and philological aspects of the work, a textological apparatus and commentary. The synoptic layout of the Slavonic and Greek versions in parallel columns enables the reader to compare their content in detail. It will be seen that the divergences are far more extensive than those indicated hitherto."


Josephus Pleads Still

VISUAL TIMELINE OF THE ROMAN-JEWISH WAR

Including

The Historical Fall of Jerusalem in AD70


TRACKING THE FIRST JEWISH REVOLT FROM A
MILITARY POINT OF VIEW

POV: Administrative | Factional | Military | Theological

David Roberts  "The Destruction of Jerusalem by General Titus "
David Roberts' "Siege of Jerusalem" / Legion Six Victorious | Summary of Josephus

  "..probably the greatest single slaughter in ancient history."
ROMAN SIEGE AND SACK OF JERUSALEM


NET RESULT: THE ULTIMATE DEFILING AND DESTRUCTION
OF TEMPLE AND NATION BY A "HEATHEN CONQUEROR"

war scroll

1QM, 4Q491-496 - The War Scroll
Failed Instructions for Resistance to the Invading Heathen Power.



Romans inside Anachronistic Representation of Holy of Holies


"There is no evidence that the altar that stood before the temple was similarly desecrated in Jesus' time. After the temple was destroyed in 70 C.E., however, Roman soldiers celebrated their victory by raising their standards, which bore the image of the emperor, on the holy place." (Robert W. Funk, Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar, The Five Gospels)


General Titus Entering the Holy of Holies

CAST OF CHARACTERS: Roman: Emperor Nero | General Vespasian | General Titus | The Roman Army || Jewish: General / Historian Josephus | Factional Leaders in Jerusalem || Administrators of Roman Judea Targets: Jerusalem | Herod's Temple // Maps of the Roman Invasion // Theological Timeline

CHRONOLOGY IMMEDIATELY SURROUNDING THE WAR

Stage 1: Murder of James the Just, "Opposition High Priest" ; Irrevocable Split: 62
Stage 2: General Revolt in Jerusalem ; Zealot Occupation of Masada: August-September 66
Stage 3: The Campaign of Cestius Gallus and the Defeat of the Twelfth Legion: October-November 66
Stage 4: End of Collaborative Government, Priesthood ; General Flight: November 66 - March 67
Part 6: Vespasian Subdues Northern and Western Palestine:  December 66 - December 68
Part 7: Three-way Power Struggle within Jerusalem After Roman Retreat: January 68 - May 70
Part 8: Romans Breach City Walls and Leave Jerusalem Desolate: May 10 - September 10, 70

 


A.D. 62 - JERUSALEM
Church Historian Suggests James' Death the "Final Straw" Which Broke the Yoke
Stage 1: Murder of James the Just, "Opposition High Priest" ; Final Days


Hegesippus - "James, the brother of the Lord, succeeded to the government of the Church in conjunction with the apostles.. Because of his exceeding great justice he was called the Just.. Coming therefore in a body to James (the Scribes and Pharisees) said, 'We entreat thee, restrain the people; for they are gone astray in regard to Jesus, as if he were the Christ.. Do thou therefore persuade the multitude not to be led astray concerning Jesus. For the whole people, and all of us also, have confidence in thee..  And he answered with a loud voice,' Why do ye ask me concerning Jesus, the Son of Man ? He himself sitteth in heaven at the right hand of the great Power, and is about to come upon the clouds of heaven.'  And when many were fully convinced and gloried in the testimony of James, and said, 'Hosanna to the Son of David,' these same Scribes and Pharisees said again to one another,' We have done badly in supplying such testimony to Jesus.. So they went up and threw down the just man, and said to each other, 'Let us stone James the Just.'  And thus he suffered martyrdom. And they buried him on the spot, by the temple, and his monument still remains by the temple. He became a true witness, both to Jews and Greeks, that Jesus is the Christ. And immediately Vespasian besieged them."

 


MARCH, A.D. 66 - JERUSALEM
The Final Days of the Jewish Commonwealth ; Anarchy Erupts, and the Christians Flee


Numerous signs, prodigies, and portents are seen in the land of Judaea at the outset of the rebellion. Included in those recorded by Josephus, armed hosts and chariots in the clouds are seen flying over all the land of Judaea; a light at night makes the temple appear as though it were on fire; Halley's Comet, in the appearance of a sword, flies over the region.   NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory says that the closest approach of the comet that year was in March, immediately prior to the revolt.

 

Christians seem to have associated this period with the warnings and admonitions of Jesus Christ in Matthew 24, because after the withdrawal of Gallus and the Battle of Beth-horon, a great number of people flee the city of Jerusalem, led by the Mother Church, which headed east over the Jordan River to safety in the area of Pella, Jordan.  Early Christian settlements sprung up all over the Roman Decapolis Scythopolis [Bet She'an], Hippos [Susieh], Gadara [Umm Qais], Pella [Tabaqat Fahl], Philadelphia [Amman],  Gerasa [Jerash], Dion [Adun], Kanatha [Kanawat], Damascus, and Raphana [Abila] .   Today this region is within the Kingdom of Jordan and the Golan Heights.  During the flight out of Palestine, a number of documents were apparently hidden in the Dead Sea area along the route -- DSS Caves 4 and 7-10 are of particular interest.


 

Signs and Portents

Christian Flight to Pella

 


MAY, A.D. 66 - JERUSALEM
Stage 2: General Revolt in Jerusalem ; Zealot Occupation of Masada: August-September 66


The Factions in Jerusalem During the Roman Siege

The Roman Procurator Florus demands 17 talents from the Jewish Temple treasury. This is the triggering insult for the Jews to begin their revolt.  The Roman garrison in Jerusalem is overrun by rebels, who take control of the city. The rebels cause cessation of all sacrifices to the Roman Emperor, thus challenging Rome head-on.

The Jewish War, 4.4.5 286-287  "There broke out a prodigious storm in the night, with the utmost violence, and very strong winds, with the largest showers of rain, with continued lightnings, terrible thunderings, and amazing concussions and bellowings of the earth, that was in an earthquake. These things were a manifest indication that some destruction was coming upon men, when the system of the world was put into this disorder; and any one would guess that these wonders foreshowed some grand calamities that were coming.  ....The Idumeans thought that God was angry at their taking arms, and that they would not escape punishment for their making war upon their metropolis. Ananus and his party thought that they had conquered without fighting, and that God acted as a general for them; but truly they proved both ill conjectures at what was to come... For as the night was far gone, and the storm very terrible, Ananus gave the guards in the cloisters leave to go to sleep; while it came into the heads of the Zealots to make use of the saws  belonging to the Temple, and to cut the bars of the gates to pieces. The noise of the wind, and that not inferior sound of the thunder, did here also conspire with their designs, that the noise of the saws was not heard by the others.  So they secretly went out of the Temple to the wall of the city, and made use of their saws, and opened that gate which was over against the Idumeans..."

 

Florus cannot handle the situation, so the (Roman) Syrian Governor, Cestius Gallus, is called in to subdue the rebellion. He attacks Jerusalem, gets up to the walls of the city, then unexpectedly withdraws, suffering heavy losses in retreat.


A.D. 66-69 - GALILEE
PROGRESS OF THE LEGIONS UNDER VESPASIAN



Vespasian

After the humiliation of Gallus -- who subsequently died (some said of shame) -- Nero commands General Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) to take over command of the Jewish War.

While civil war rages in Jerusalem, Vespasian decides to give time for the infighting in the city to weaken the Jewish defense against his armies.  He then proceeds to subdue Galilee with the aid of his son Titus.  After a number of sieges and clashes, he succeeds in calming northern Judaea.  

JOSEPHUS CAPTURED IN THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA

Jewish General Josephus in captured in siege of Jotapata.  After a short imprisonment, he serves the Roman field marshals until the completion of the war.  After the war, Josephus is adopted into the Flavian family, and he writes the definitive history of the Roman-Jewish War.


Josephus Being Presented to Vespasian by Titus

http://members.aol.com/Fljosephus2/mapOfJudaeaVesp.jpg


A.D. 68 & 69 - ROME, ITALY
NERO COMMITS SUICIDE; VESPASIAN SUSPENDS OPERATIONS


"THE YEAR OF THE FOUR EMPERORS"

Four emperors possess the ultimate world power in Rome in quick succession during this unsettled period. The first is Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus), who ends the reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty by committing suicide on June 9th, 68. 

His last words were "Qualis artifex Pereo" which is translated "what an artist dies in me"

General Galba in Spain declares himself emperor while Nero is still alive, and takes power upon his arrival in Rome.  In January, 69, Galba is murdered by Otho who proclaims himself emperor.  On April 15th, Otho commits suicide and his rival, Vitellius becomes emperor.  In June, Vespasian resumes operations in Judea.  In July, Vespasian is proclaimed emperor by the army.  He transfers command of the Jewish war to his son Titus and heads for Rome.  On December 20th, 69, Vitellius is beheaded in Rome and Vespasian is installed as emperor there.


Nero
(10/16/54 - 6/9/68)


Galba
(6/68-1/69)

Otho
(1/69 - 4/15/69)


Vitellius
(4/15/69 - 12/20/69)


A.D. 70 - JERUSALEM
TITUS TAKES OVER WAR AND HEADS STRAIGHT TO JERUSALEM


They will take away your turban and remove your crown; everything will be changed; the low will be high and the high brought low. To ruin, and to ruin on ruin, am I going to bring it, to such ruin as was never known before this man came who is appointed to inflict the punishment which I am determined to impose on it." (Ez.21:23-27).

With Vespasian taking over the government of the Roman Empire, his son Titus Flavius Vespasianus (AD 9-79; Joint Emperor AD 69-79 ; Sole Emperor 79-81) takes over as field marshal of the Roman forces opposing the Jewish revolt.  Titus and Tiberius Alexander, Prefect of Egypt, march to Caesarea from Alexandria, bringing with them reinforcements from the 18th and 3rd Augusta Legions.  The 12th Legion marched down from Syria, and three thousand legionaries of the 23rd and/or 24th Legions marched west from the Euphrates.  In April, 70, Titus led the 12th and 15th Legions and the 3rd Augusta and 18th Legion cohorts out of Caesarea towards Jerusalem.  Upon arriving, he encamped on Mount Scopus, north of the city.


Titus


Titus Surveying Jerusalem from Mount Scopus  (Pierre Family "Jerusalem as Besieged by Titus")

 


APRIL, A.D. 70 - PHASE ONE
THE ROMAN ARMY ARRIVES AT JERUSALEM TO PREPARE THE SIEGE


The first night of Titus' encampment with the 15th, 3rd and 18th Legions, the 5th Legion arrived from Emmaus and set camp north of the city on Mount Scopus.  Later the next day, the famed 10th Legion (founded by Julius Caesar) marched in from Jericho and camped on the Mount of Olives, east of the city.   Instead of waiting to starve the Jews into submission, Titus decides to assault many different parts of the city and overwhelm the defenders.    Titus was early on in the middle of the fighting with his soldiers.  At least two times, Titus and his detachment are surrounded by defenders, only to escape unharmed.

The first obstacle was the Third Wall, just to the north of the Jaffa Gate.  The ground leading up to it was felled to provide clear fields of fire and to provide timber for siege equipment. Two of the Jewish factions fighting within the city agree to work together against the Romans, but a third continued to fight the other factions.  Massive quantities of corn were destroyed in bitter factional fighting.




 

"The preparation took several weeks  Finally Titus brought up the artillery, and the assault troops prepared their heavy equipment.  As the soldiers of the Roman army went to their beds on May 9, all was in readiness." (Stephen Dando-Collins, Caesar's Legion)

 

Jerusalem Assault Maps







 

MAY 10, A.D. 70 - AT DAWN
THE ROMAN ASSAULT BEGINS AT THIRD WALL OF JERUSALEM

Assault troops attempt to breach the wall using a variety of methods - stone-hurling ballistas, spear throwing "scorpion" catapults, mantlets, siege towers, battering rams, and the testudo method of interlocking shields for attempt at undermining the wall's strength.  Jewish defenders, with covering fire from 340 artillery pieces of their own (captured after the Battle of Beth-horon and the taking of the Antonia Fortress four years earlier), attempt many sallies outside the walls of the city in a desperate attempt to drive the armies back. 

1683 Dutch - Jerusalem Beseiged by Titus Vespasian

‘Admirable as were the engines constructed by all the legions, those of the tenth were of peculiar excellence. Their scorpions were of greater power and their stone-projectors larger, and with these they not only kept in check the sallying parties, but those also on the ramparts. The stones that were thrown were of the weight of a talent, and had a range of two furlongs and more. The shock, not only to such as first met it, but even to those beyond them for a considerable distance, was irresistible. The Jews, however, at the first, could guard against the stone; for its approach was intimated, not only to the ear by its whiz, but also, being white, to the eye by its brightness. Accordingly they had watchmen posted on the towers, who gave warning when the engine was discharged and the stone projected, calling out in their native language, "The son is coming," on which those towards whom it was directed would separate, and lie down before it reached them. Thus it happened that, owing to these precautions, the stone fell harmless. It then occurred to the Romans to blacken it; when, taking a more successful aim, as it was no longer equally discernible in its approach, they swept down many at a single discharge.’ Josephus, Jewish Wars, bk. v. chap. vi. 3.



100lb. Stones thrown 400 yards by Roman Ballistas used by the 10th Legion


With the 10th Legion providing covering fire, the 5th, 12th, and 15th roll over three massive siege towers against the Third Wall -- each determined to be the first to create a breach.


Battering rams are employed against the wall, and are countered by sacks lowered from the top of the wall intended to soften the blows.


The Jewish Defenders Put up a Valiant Resistance


And Even Succeeded in Burning Some of the Siege Equipment

The rams kept up their work day in and day out.. creating a massive din which troubled the sleep of the defenders.

On May 25, the wall gave way in all three locations.  legionaries scrambled up the crumbling walls to face the defenders, and eventually succeeded in opening the Jaffa Gate to the waiting Romans outside.  The defenders were forced to flee behind the Second Wall -- which dated back to 37 B.C.  The second wall was much higher and thicker than the Third.  Though it didn't have as many towers as the Third, it incorporated the bastions of the Temple to the east and Herod's Palace on the western side of the city.

 

Click Here




Alfred Church

LATE MAY, A.D. 70 - PHASE TWO
THE 5TH, 12TH, and 15TH LEGIONS QUARTER IN THE CAMP OF THE ASSYRIANS


Titus positioned the battering rams to attack the central northern tower of the Second Wall.  The tower crumbled, and a section of the wall adjacent to the tower collapsed.  The defenders then retreated inside the First Wall.  Josephus was used at this juncture to implore the partisans to surrender, promising honorable treatment at the hands of the Romans.  The defenders, in response, threatened death to any of the hundreds of thousands of refugees still inside should they have attempted to surrender.

Thousands of legionaries poured inside the ruined section of the wall, only to be caught up in a maze of narrow streets inside.  Suddenly gates opened in the First Wall and the Romans were overwhelmed and forced to retreat behind the Second Wall.

Titus orders sustained ramming operations and succeeds in opening several new breaches.  When the Romans retake the Second Wall, the Jews are forced to again retreat inside the first wall.  All buildings between the two walls are then demolished by the Romans.  Titus then suspends the siege.

 

JUNE 2, A.D. 70 - MIGHT & MADNESS
ROMANS PARADE IN FULL DRESS WHILE FAMINE GRIPS CITY

Over the next four days the legions were parades in full-dress uniforms as Titus ceremoniously doled out the pay of every legionary.  This was done in full view of the people, in an attempt to awe the defenders into surrender.  People crowded the walls and windows of the city to watch the process.   Josephus was sent again to negotiate a surrender -- to no avail.  The starving masses inside began resorting to any method of satisfying their hunger.  Armed bands roved the city violently taking food from the women, children and aged -- killing all who resisted.  Jews caught foraging for food outside the walls were whipped and crucified.  Upwards of 500 people a day were crucified until there were no more crosses to accommodate the victims.


Meanwhile Famine Rages inside the Walls of Jerusalem


SUMMER, A.D. 70 - PHASE THREE
JUNE - WALL OF CIRCUMVALLATION BUILT TO QUICKEN FAMINE


In order to protect the camps, supply lines, and seal in the defenders of the city, Titus order the erection of a wall which would encircle the entire city -- sealing in the inhabitants and sealing the fate of Jerusalem. 

The circumvallation made of five miles of trench and wall, with over a dozen forts built along its length.  Certainly, the Third Wall was plundered for supplies.  Those inside the city were astonished to see the entire project completed in just three days.  This engineering and construction feat is a marvel of the ancient world and explains why Rome conquered the known world.

With this development civil war inside the city intensified.  Josephus called once more for surrender.  This time, he was hit on the head with a stone and was presumed dead, though he revived and resumed his peace efforts. 


Wright's "Vengeance of the Lord"



Josephus Pleading in Front of the Walls of Jerusalem During Siege


1601 Nevereze's "Jerusalem Besieged"


Ultimate Act of Infamy : "Mary" Devours Child

JULY - ALL FOUR LEGIONS CONCENTRATED ON ANTONIA FORTRESS

" Paul the Apostle was arrested in the Temple Court where the angry Jewish mob tried to kill him. He asked for permission to speak to the crowd from the steps leading up from the Court of the Gentiles into the barracks of the Antonia Fortress (Acts 21:31-22:29). When Paul stood before the Council the following day he once again needed to be rescued and was taken up the stairs into the barracks (Acts 22:30-23:10). The soldiers later took him secretly at night from the Antonia Fortress to Caesarea (Acts 23:23-35)."

After all four battering rams were positioned on the northern wall of the fortress, the ground gave way.   A tunnel dug by the defenders collapsed, and a gap in the wall appeared.  Discouraged to find another wall built behind it, operations turned to volunteers.  Sabinus volunteered to climb the hastily erected wall, and actually reached the top.  In his excitement, he stumbled and was cut down.  Two nights later, twenty legionaries and an eagle-bearer from the 5th Legion quietly climbed the wall and overpowered the Jewish sentries on duty.  The trumpeter blew his instrument to alert the troops below.  Panic-stricken, the other Jewish guards abandoned their posts.  Titus and his officers were among those who flooded, unopposed, over the wall.  The Jewish defenders withdrew to the Temple.  Hand to hand fighting commenced in the Sanctuary of the Temple.  The struggle that evening lasted until the afternoon of the next day.


Die Zerstörung des Tempels von Jerusalem
1864 Francisco Hayez

After a council of war apparently decided to spare the temple if possible, as a monument to Rome's glory, full scale assault began on the Sanctuary.  The gates were burned and stormed, but the fight was a stalemate.  Titus withdrew his troops beyond the Sanctuary and retired to bed.

Thank you for your reply. I'm sad to see that I won't be able to see where this pictures come from. If you like this picture, I could send another version of "Destruction of Jerusalem" by John Martin, the artist I'm working about.

As you cannot tell me anything about this magnificent picture. could you send me the original picture you must have? Maybe you have it in your personnal files or you know where I could find it (with a website link). I made a copy of the image you posted on your preterist website, but it's a low-resolution picture so I cannot read the names of the artists above the frame. It's the only thing that matters to me.

If you can do anything, I would appreciate it.

I thank you even though, it's kind of your to answer me back.

Have a nice week-end.

Dany.

p.s.: by the way, here are the pictures of Martin that could interest you. The first one is entitled "Crucifixion" (1834) and it figures the pre-destruction of Jerusalem with its desolation to come. The second one is entitled "The Destruction of Jerusalem" and the last one is entitled "Nehemiah mourning over Jerusalem" (it's a sequel from the Jerusalem destruction). I hope you'll like it as I like it.
"Destruction of Jerusalem" by John Martin


9TH OF AV, A.D. 70 - CHURBAN HABAYIT
DATE OF THE DESTRUCTION OF BOTH TEMPLES OF SOLOMON AND HEROD



A single Roman soldier threw a firebrand into one of the Temple's windows, starting a raging fire.  As the temple burned, the Romans looted it and massacred the defenders.  Titus passed through a curtained opening, and entered the Holy of Holies. 

"On the day the Temple fell, Titus found God's room to be empty."


Nicolas Poussin

The Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans


1569 Galle's "Destruction of Jerusalem by Emperor Titus"


1546 Krafft - "Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple" (Printed at Wittenburg)


Titus mourns loss of Temple with Josephus
 


The Romans set up their ensigns and standards against the Temple and worship them and their general, Titus.

Jewish people have mourned the loss of the Temple since that day

"Napoleon once passed a synagogue on the day of Tisha B’Av and observed the entire congregation sitting and weeping. Quite intrigued, he asked his officers if they could explain this unusual sight. One intelligent officer responded by recounting the history of the Jewish People and the Holy Temple in Jerusalem that was destroyed two thousand years ago. Totally amazed by the phenomenon that he witnessed before his very eyes, Napoleon exclaimed: “any nation that can retain such a fierce love and loyalty for a Holy site that they’ve never seen that was so far away, and for so long, is destined for greatness and will outlive us all!”




 

FINISHING JERUSALEM'S DESOLATION AND CAPTIVITY OF JEWS
"JUDEA CAPTA"


"Judea Capta" Coin


Destruction of Jerusalem Vos, Maarten de 1582

 


Tens of Thousands Sold Into Slavery or used by Army Engineers for Slave Labor


A.D. 71 - ROME, ITALY
JOINT TRIUMPH OF TITUS AND VESPASIAN




Procession of Spoils



1537 Giulio Pippi - Triumph of Titus and Vespasian


A.D. 73 - MASADA
ZEALOT ESCAPE AND FALL OF MASADA ; END OF OPEN HOSTILITIES


Masada
GOOGLE EARTH PLACEMARK

Masasa Was Prepared by Jonathan, but finally made into a fortress by Herod.  The King prepared it as a summer vacation spot, and also as a fortress in case he and his family had to flee... although it was never utilized for this purpose.   One of the earliest acts of the First Revolt was the seizing of the fortress by Jewish Zealots.

APRIL 15 – The last of the rebelling enclaves falls to the Romans when the mountain fortress of Masada is taken after a long siege.  Instead of being taken and sold into slavery, the defenders chose death by group suicide.  This represents the final official action of the First Jewish Revolt.






Kossoff "Masada"


1730 French Josephus


 


Weapons Used by Defenders (Eleazar!?)
Available for Purchase on Ebay


Roman Items Found at Masada


AFTERMATH

ROMAN COLOSSEUM (FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATER) AND ARCH OF TITUS BUILT WITH BOOTY FROM THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM - NUMEROUS OTHER ROMAN ENGINEERING PROJECTS AIDED BY JEWISH SLAVE LABOR


The Arch of Titus (81)

Built With Jewish Slave Labor


Flavian Amphitheatre (72)

Built With Jewish Slave Labor




Titus' Tunnel
GOOGLE EARTH PLACEMARK

Reputedly the First Tunnel in History
Panoramio Page

Built With Jewish Slave Labor


Hakan Pavi


William Blake -  Jerusalem


1846 Kaulbach - The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus
 

 

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