BOOKS: BIBLICAL STUDIES (1500BC-AD70) / EARLY CHRISTIAN PRETERISM (AD50-1000) / FREE ONLINE BOOKS (AD1000-2008)
AD70 Dispensationalism: According to
that view, AD70 was the end of 'this age' and the start of the 'age to come'.
Those who lived before AD70 could only 'see in part' and such, lacking
the resurrection and redemptive blessings which supposedly came only
Herod's Temple in Jerusalem
fell. Accordingly, AD70 was not only the end of Old
Testament Judaism, but it was also the end of the revelation of
Christianity as seen in the New Testament.
AD70 Dispensationalism: According to that view, AD70 was the end of 'this age' and the start of the 'age to come'. Those who lived before AD70 could only 'see in part' and such, lacking the resurrection and redemptive blessings which supposedly came only when Herod's Temple in Jerusalem fell. Accordingly, AD70 was not only the end of Old Testament Judaism, but it was also the end of the revelation of Christianity as seen in the New Testament.
material is being archived for balanced representation of all preterist views,
but is classified under the theological term hyper (as in beyond
the acceptable range of tolerable doctrines) at this website. The
classification of all full preterism as Hyper Preterism (HyP) is built
upon well over a decade of intense research at PreteristArchive.com, and
the convictions of
the website curator (a
former full preterist pastor). The HyP
theology of final resurrection and consummation in the fall of Jerusalem, with its dispensational line in AD70
(end of old age, start of new age), has never been known among authors
through nearly 20 centuries of Christianity leading up
to 1845, when the earliest known full preterist book was written.
Even though there may be many secondary points of agreement between
Historical/Modern Preterism and Hyper Preterism, their premises are undeniably and
THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED AS "HYPER PRETERIST"
"Full preterist" material is being archived for balanced representation of all preterist views, but is classified under the theological term hyper (as in beyond the acceptable range of tolerable doctrines) at this website. The classification of all full preterism as Hyper Preterism (HyP) is built upon well over a decade of intense research at PreteristArchive.com, and the convictions of the website curator (a former full preterist pastor). The HyP theology of final resurrection and consummation in the fall of Jerusalem, with its dispensational line in AD70 (end of old age, start of new age), has never been known among authors through nearly 20 centuries of Christianity leading up to 1845, when the earliest known full preterist book was written. Even though there may be many secondary points of agreement between Historical/Modern Preterism and Hyper Preterism, their premises are undeniably and fundamentally different.
WARNING: THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED AS "HYPER PRETERIST"
SOME DISTINCTIVE DOCTRINES OF SYSTEMATIZED HYPER PRETERISM
It is important to keep in mind that many ideas and doctrines full preterism appeals to - such as the complete end of the Old Covenant world in AD70 - are by no means distinctive to that view. Many non HyPs believe this as well, so one need not embrace the Hyper Preterist system in order to endorse this view. Following are exceptional doctrines which, so far as I've seen, are only taught by adherents of Hyper Preterism.:
DISTINCTIVE DOCTRINES TAUGHT BY STANDARD FULL PRETERISM
DISTINCTIVE DOCTRINES TAUGHT BY VARIOUS FORMS
David Chilton (1987)
Those who were unable to attend the regular Feast of Passover were required to celebrate it a month later (Numbers 9:9-13). Josephus reports a third great wonder that happened at the end of this Second Passover in 66: “A supernatural apparition was seen, too amazing to be believed. What I am now to relate would, I imagine, be dismissed as imaginary, had this not been vouched for by eyewitnesses, then followed by subsequent disasters that deserved to be thus signalized. For before sunset chariots were seen in the air over the whole country, and armed battalions speeding through the clouds and encircling the cities.” (Jerusalem Under Siege)
The Resurrection of the Dead
By Eric Fugett
The debate over whether there is/was a resurrection of the dead is apparently as controversial an issue today as it was in the 1st Century. One of the main rifts between the Pharisees and the Sadducees was over the Resurrection of the dead. The Pharisees believed there would be a resurrection of and a future life for the dead, while the Sadducees believed that your existence ended with death. Jesus addressed both of those issues in the gospels (Matthew 22:23-33, Mark 12:18-27, and Luke 20:27-40). He made it very clear to the Sadducees that they were in error, on both counts, due to their lack of knowledge of the Scriptures and understanding of the power of God. When on trial, Paul also exploited the tension that existed between the Pharisees and Sadducees over the issue of the resurrection of the dead (Acts 23:6-10). Today, the debate seems to be whether "resurrection" is referring to a spiritual awakening/becoming a Christian or whether it is referring to an actual resurrection of bodies/souls. I propose that both are true, and one simply needs to examine the context, of the Scripture reference, to determine which is being discussed. (Please read the whole article before passing judgment.)
First, I want to examine the Scripture references in favor of the resurrection of the dead referring to a spiritual awakening or becoming a Christian. In John 3, Jesus tells Nicodemus that he must be born again in order to enter into the kingdom of heaven or become a Christian. In John 5:21, Jesus says that anyone who believes in him has crossed over from death to life. Ephesians 2:6 and Colossians 3:1 both state that, as Christians, we have been raised into the heavenly realms with Christ. Ephesians 5:1-17 and 1 Peter 2:9, both talk about going from darkness to light, and Ephesians 5:14 encourages the Ephesians to rise from the dead so that Christ can shine on them. Romans 6:1-7 describes the process of becoming a Christian as being a participation in the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus. Revelation 20:5-6 says that when we participate in the 1st resurrection (become Christians), the second death or Hell is no longer to be feared. I think with these Scriptures, the argument for "resurrection of the dead" referring to spiritual awakening or becoming a Christian has been made. Now let's examine the other possibility.
In John 11:24, Martha, the sister of Mary and Lazarus, told Jesus that she knew Lazarus would rise again in the resurrection at the last day. Obviously, there is/was to be a future resurrection of all the dead at some time afterwards, and according to her statement, it was to occur at the last day. The last days were in reference to the last days of the Old Covenant, which ended in 70 CE (AD). (I discuss this topic throughout my book.) Jesus in his discussion with Sadducees, in the gospel accounts listed above, states that there is/was both a future age and resurrection to come. Jesus also told them that people who were resurrected would not marry because they would be like the angels in heaven (Matthew 22:30, Mark 12:25, Luke 20:36). He also told those to whom he was speaking, "this generation", that the Queen of the South and the people of Nineveh would condemn then on Judgment day because they believed the words of Solomon and Jonah respectively.
From the Scriptures, we also understand that Jesus was the first to be resurrected from the dead, never to die again (Acts 26:23, Romans 6:9, Colossians 1:18). In Acts 24:15, Paul said that he was on trial because of his belief that there would be a resurrection of both the righteous and the wicked. In 1 Corinthians 15 and 1 Thessalonians 4:13-16, Paul, when talking about the resurrection of Jesus, goes on to say that those who fall asleep (die in the Lord) will be resurrected as well. In Philippians 3:10-11, Paul says that he wants, by some means, to attain the resurrection of the dead. In 2 Timothy 2:16-18, Paul, when speaking of Hymenaeus and Philetus, says that they destroy the faith of some by saying that the resurrection has already taken place. The Hebrew writer, in chapter six verses one and two, states that the resurrection of the dead is an elementary teaching. In chapter 11, he states that many were tortured and killed because of their hope in the resurrection.
All of this brings us to the book of Revelation, where in chapter six, we find souls under the altar when the fifth seal is opened. They were told to wait a little longer, until those, who were soon to die in Christ, joined them. Then in Revelation 20, two sets of book were opened one in relation to the judgment against Israel and the other in judgment of the dead. Daniel 12 predicted that a judgment would occur against Israel/Jerusalem during that time period as well.
According to Revelation 20:11-15, all of the holding places for the dead were emptied and every soul was judged. At that time people went from Paradise, Tartarus, and anywhere else souls were allowed to be, to either Heaven or Hell. The Jewish historian Josephus provides insights into the Jewish thoughts on Paradise, Tartarus, Heaven, and Hell in his writing entitled, "Josephus' Discourse to the Greeks Concerning Hades." Josephus believed that Paradise and Tartarus were holding places for the dead until Judgment Day, at which time people either went to Heaven or Hell. Jesus describes the two holding places in Luke 17:19-31 and I suggest that this was not a parable. Usually the Bible is up-front in letting us know when Jesus is teaching a parable (Matthew 13, Mark 4, and Luke 15). Jesus never used a real name in any of his parables, so I believe that He was describing the two regions. Jesus also told the thief on the cross that he would be with Him that day in paradise (Luke 23:43). There are also Scriptures, like John 5:21-29 and John 11:23-26, that tend to talk about resurrection as both a spiritual occurrence and a literal event.
Hopefully, I have successfully shown that there was to be a resurrection of the dead at some time in the 1st Century. Now, I would like to tell you the date that I believe the Resurrection of the Dead actually occurred. As I pointed out in my article entitled, "Dating the Book of Revelation," the trumpet soundings in the book of Revelation were in reference to the Jewish Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah). David Chilton makes a case for the number "eight" being the number that represents resurrection in the Bible (Days of Vengeance, pp. 434-437). He uses the examples of the eight survivors of the flood, and Jesus being resurrected on, if you think about it, the eighth day (Sunday to Sunday), to show how Rome was resurrected under the eighth emperor Vespasian (Revelation 17:7-11). 1 Corinthians 15:52 tells us that the last trumpet will sound and the dead will be raised. Seven Feasts of Trumpets passed from the time that John was given The Revelation (September 11, 63 CE (AD)), to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE (AD). Remember that eight is the number that represents resurrection. The eighth Feast of Trumpets occurred on September 24, 70 CE (AD) shortly after the destruction of Jerusalem. Even Rabbis believe that Rosh Hashanah or The Feast of Trumpets should be Judgment Day. (See the article on Rosh Hashanah) September 24, 70 CE (AD) was the day that the dead were resurrected or what we commonly think of as "Judgment Day.
Those who died after this judgment occurred did not go to a holding place for the dead because those holding places were destroyed. This is why Paul says, in 1 Corinthians 15:51-58 and 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, that we will not all sleep, but after the dead are judged (in The Judgment), we will be changed in a flash and go to meet Jesus when we die. People, who have died, after September 24, 70 CE, have gone directly before God (for judgment) and then to either heaven or hell.
Lastly, to prove my point, that both viewpoints are correct, I would have you examine Revelation 20:5-6. It says that those who participate in the 1st resurrection (Christians) do not have to fear the second death (Hell). By mentioning a first resurrection, it implies that there will be at least a second resurrection, just like mentioning the second death (Hell) implies that there is a first death (death itself). (I hope you really take the time to digest the gravity of that statement.)
In conclusion I would like to reiterate that I believe that "resurrection" can refer to either a spiritual awakening/becoming a Christian, or the resurrection of souls on judgment day. However, I do not believe that becoming a Christian is what "The Resurrection of the Dead" is referring to.
If you want to know more about Heaven, Hell, and Judgment Day, you are going to have read my book, "A PERSONAL REVELATION."
Very interesting line of reasoning. Great specifics! Narrowed it down a bit, I'd say.
Thank you. I believe the goal is for us all to reach unity in the faith. We can do that on some of these issues if we are willing to listen to each other.
Interesting article but please not that you have wrong reference in Luke. You have chapter 17 when it is 16. mk
Really appreciate the original thinking in the idea of tying the resurrection to the feast of Trumpets. Even if it turns out incorrect, this is the type of thinking we need to help stimulate thought and break out of old paradigms. Keep it up! However, to date of 9/24/70 A.D. (C.E. is the method adopted by liberals who don't want to admit to the Lord's reign in the Latin "Anno Domini")is well past the fall of Jerusalem, which Josephus gives as the 8th of August. In reality, therefore, there was no eighth feast of Trumpets...at least on earth. This is a serious objection that needs to be addressed. Also, I would like to know the basis for ascertaining the date of John's receipt of the Revelation on 9/11/63 A.D. I suspect it is based upon assumptions that probably cannot be proved. That the resurrection would occur on the eighth feast of Trumpets from the date of the Revelation is, of course, impossible to prove. Although the theory is creative, it is one that must forever remain in the realm of speculation, unable to be adequately demonstrated by scripture. Still, this is the type of original thinking that is so needed, so keep it up! Great job! A friend.
Thank you. You are correct. The reference to Jesus talking about the rich man & Lazarus should have been Luke 16:19-31.
Friend, thanks for your comments. According to Josephus, the temple was destroyed on 8/5/70 & Jerusalem itelf on 9/2/70. I have on article on dating the book of Revelation on this site under my book, "A Personal Revelation." Basically, I discovered that the trumpet soundings were the Jewish Feast of Trumpets or Rosh Hashanah. Knowing that Jerusalem was destroyed before a Feast of Trumpets, told me that the 7th one was on 69 CE. Therefore the first trumpet sounding was in 63 CE. According to John, he heard a trumpet on Sunday (The Lord's Day). The Feast of Trumpets began Sunday evening 9/11/63, which fits the chronology of John's description. Now that you know where I am coming from, what do you think?
Here is a clarification on the date of the destruction of Jerusalem. I believe Josephus said Elul 8, which is September 2, 70 CE, not August 8, 70 CE. Also, with the clues we were given from John in Revelation 1:10, I date the book. I know it's simple, but I think maybe we overanalyze things. I can't believe I'm saying that & I'm an engineer. (;-}
I'll add one last comment. I believe that the destruction of Jerusalem left that the church as the sole kingdom of God. I also believe as you see in my article that the resurrection of the dead occurred at this time as well. I think that to argue that either one of these events did not take place is to ignore the scriptures & history.
I don't know enough about the date of the destruction of the temple and Jerusalem or the Feast of Trumpets to comment on these points; however, I think your interpretation of "...we shall not all sleep but be changed in the twinkling of an eye..." is the best I've ever heard. I've never thought of it in that way before even though I've had a "death experience" and know first-hand that when you die, the spirit man simply leaves the human body and we are indeed changed from a physical body to a spiritual body "in the twinkling of an eye."
Thanks. I prayed for insights throughout the process of writing my book. I believe very strongly that God answered those prayers.
If "resurrection of the dead" refers to spiritual awakening or becoming a Christian, why does The Bible teach that Jesus was resurrectrd from the dead? Are you saying that Jesus became a Christian and that he was spiritually dead before his resurrection?
I think you misunderstood me. Please read the entire article again.
Thanx brother for some stimulating thoughts..You may be aware that Dave Curtis has some super sermons ( 5 in fact) regarding the jewish feasts and their fulfillment at time of Jerusalem's demise.( I for one am always open to new insight about all this)..Oddly I had a talk with our dispensational pastor who believes all 7 feasts were fulfilled and yet is still a futurist, ( a bit confused to say the least). Lastly, please consider what Max King , Sam Frost etc. have to say about who "the dead" are.I think they are onto something, the "dead" being denied resurrection by some at Corinth were probably jews. Corinthians were commiting the very thing Pal insisted the roman christians not do, say there is no longer any hope for national Israel at that time. I appreciate what one person commented about resurrection being a spiritual awakening rather than a biological/physical resurrection..Thanx again, keep up good work! g.w.
Dear Erick, We have some problems that I know you will appreciate hearing about. You mentioned in your article that Luke 16:19-31 was not a parable. Jesus makes the application clear. He makes it clear that it was in fact a parable. Note the context. Jesus identifies the object of the "Rich Man" in Luke 16:14 and before. What do you suppose verse18 has to do with verse 19? You find the answer at Romans 7:1-4 This was a parable about the passing of the old law covenant. Both the Rich religious leaders and the "people of the earth" DIED. Their roles were reversed under the new covenant. It was just an illustration. After all, no one was in heaven before Christ died. Or did he mean to say at John 3:13 that Lazarus was an exception. One other point. Jesus did not say the Evil doer was in heaven that very day. I have an exact copy of the Vatican 1209 codex B. Did you know that as early as the 3rd century there was punctuation. I would be happy to send you a copy. The pause was put after the word "today". Jesus said, "Truly I tell you today [comma] you will be with me in paradise. I would love to hear from you. firstname.lastname@example.org
I think our disagreement may be over whether Paradise was heaven or whether it was the holding place for those who would one day go to heaven. The Jewish historian Josephus wrote a letter that has been entitled, Josephus' Discourse to the Greeks on Hades. Here he explains the two regions of Hades, Paradise or the Bosom of Abraham & Tartarus or the Place of Torment. Josephus says that the Jews believed that people in those places would go to heaven or hell at Judgment. I do not believe that the rich man & Lazarus was a parable because of the reasons that I stated in the article. Jesus never used a real name in his parables & we were not told that it was a parable beforehand. Also, beginning with verse 14 of chapter 16, Jesus switches from parables to straight talk. Just my thoughts. I could be wrong about the rich man and Lazarus, however, I do believe that Paradise & Tartarus existed before Judgment Day.
We that understand the wonderful truth about fulfilled prophecy should also be asking questions about other beliefs we have treasured in the past . THE EXPRESSION "HEAVEN OR HELL" should be eliminated from the Christian list of expression. It comes from pagan Greek and Baylonian religious thought. It is not an expression found in scripture. We have been had by the corrupting influences of Greek mythology. Josephus should not be used as a basis for this belief system. He was a historian, not a Christian. His beliefs even went against the teachings of Moses. Please, is there anyone in the world that has one text to support the idea of conscious "souls" in some place of literal torment? Christ gives life to those who believe in him, death is the reward to those who do not. Frankly, I don't worship a God that will allow me to watch my fellow humans suffering in the flames of some Greek Hell. Imagine, living in paradise forever knowing that every second of every moment in eternity, my uncle, my son, my old highschool buddy is pleading with me for a drop of water on the tip of his tonque. No Thanks, I'll take the scriptures and my God of Love over Babylonian demon worship any day.
I do not see how it could be considered Greek or Babylonian influence when Josephus addresses it, since Jesus addressed it too. Eric
Date: 02 Nov 2012
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