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Introduction and Key


Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord's Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by
Todd Dennis, Curator





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070: Clement: First Epistle of Clement

075: Baruch: Apocalypse Of Baruch

075: Barnabus: Epistle of Barnabus

090: Esdras 2 / 4 Ezra

100: Odes of Solomon

150: Justin: Dialogue with Trypho

150: Melito: Homily of the Pascha

175: Irenaeus: Against Heresies

175: Clement of Alexandria: Stromata

198: Tertullian: Answer to the Jews

230: Origen: The Principles | Commentary on Matthew | Commentary on John | Against Celsus

248: Cyprian: Against the Jews

260: Victorinus: Commentary on the Apocalypse "Alcasar, a Spanish Jesuit, taking a hint from Victorinus, seems to have been the first (AD 1614) to have suggested that the Apocalyptic prophecies did not extend further than to the overthrow of Paganism by Constantine."

310: Peter of Alexandria

310: Eusebius: Divine Manifestation of our Lord

312: Eusebius: Proof of the Gospel

319: Athanasius: On the Incarnation

320: Eusebius: History of the Martyrs

325: Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History

345: Aphrahat: Demonstrations

367: Athanasius: The Festal Letters

370: Hegesippus: The Ruin of Jerusalem

386: Chrysostom: Matthew and Mark

387: Chrysostom: Against the Jews

408: Jerome: Commentary on Daniel

417: Augustine: On Pelagius

426: Augustine: The City of God

428: Augustine: Harmony

420: Cassian: Conferences

600: Veronica Legend

800: Aquinas: Eternity of the World




1265: Aquinas: Catena Aurea

1543: Luther: On the Jews

1555: Calvin: Harmony on Evangelists

1556: Jewel: Scripture

1586: Douay-Rheims Bible

1598: Jerusalem's Misery ; The dolefull destruction of faire Ierusalem by Tytus, the Sonne of Vaspasian

1603: Nero : A New Tragedy

1613: Carey: The Fair Queen of Jewry

1614: Alcasar: Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi

1654: Ussher: The Annals of the World

1658: Lightfoot: Commentary from Hebraica

1677: Crowne - The Destruction of Jerusalem

1764: Lardner: Fulfilment of our Saviour's Predictions

1776: Edwards: History of Redemption

1785: Churton: Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem

1801: Porteus: Our Lord's Prophecies

1802: Nisbett: The Coming of the Messiah

1805: Jortin: Remarks on Ecclesiastical History

1810: Clarke: Commentary On the Whole Bible

1816: Wilkins: Destruction of Jerusalem Related to Prophecies

1824: Galt: The Bachelor's Wife

1840: Smith: The Destruction of Jerusalem

1841: Currier: The Second Coming of Christ

1842: Bastow : A (Preterist) Bible Dictionary

1842: Stuart: Interpretation of Prophecy

1843: Lee: Dissertations on Eusebius

1845: Stuart: Commentary on Apocalypse

1849: Lee: Inquiry into Prophecy

1851: Lee: Visions of Daniel and St. John

1853: Newcombe: Observations on our Lord's Conduct as Divine Instructor

1854: Chamberlain: Restoration of Israel

1854: Fairbairn: The Typology of Scripture

1859: "Lee of Boston": Eschatology

1861: Maurice: Lectures on the Apocalypse

1863: Thomas Lewin : The Siege of Jerusalem

1865: Desprez: Daniel (Renounced Full Preterism)

1870: Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest

1871: Dale: Jewish Temple and Christian Church (PDF)

1879: Warren: The Parousia

1882: Farrar: The Early Days of Christianity

1883: Milton S. Terry: Biblical Hermeneutics

1888: Henty: For The Temple

1891: Farrar: Scenes in the days of Nero

1896: Lee : A Scholar of a Past Generation

1902: Church: Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

1917: Morris: Christ's Second Coming Fulfilled

1985: Lee: Jerusalem; Rome; Revelation (PDF)

1987: Chilton: The Days of Vengeance

2001: Fowler: Jesus - The Better Everything

2006: M. Gwyn Morgan - AD69 - The Year of Four Emperors

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The First Complete Translation And Interpretation of 50 Key Documents Withheld For Over 35 Years

Robert Eisenman & Michael Wise

And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses have come, (24) those written in the Bo[ok of Mo]ses; therefore this is the End of Days (4Q397 - 399)


1Q16 - Pesher Psalms | 1Q71-72 - Daniel | 1QpHab - Habakkuk | 1QS - The Community Rule || 4Q169 - Nahum | 4Q171 - Psalm Pesher | 4Q266-273 ; CD - Damascus Document | 4QH - Thanksgiving Hymns | 4Q397-399 ; MMT - Works Accounted as Righteousness || "7Q5 = Mark 6:52-53" - Study of Dead Sea Scroll Fragment 7Q5

That this text is a second letter is clearly signaled in Lines 29-30, quoted above, which refer to a first letter already having been written on the same subject - 'works reckoned as justifying you' (italics ours).  Though fragments of the two letters are in the same handwriting, it is not clear that these are directly connected or on the same or succeeding columns.  That the same scribe wrote both letters would not be either unexpected or surprising - nor would the possibility that both letters were already circulating as part of the same document or manuscript, as for instance 1 and 2 Corinthians or 1 and 2 Thessalonians noted above.  The second letter is, in any event, extant in a single document.

This short epistle of some 35 extant lines is also of the most far-reaching significance for Qumran studies, not only for all the reasons set forth in our discussion of the First Letter, but also because this text is clearly eschatological.  The question then becomes, when were people thinking in such an eschatological manner, i.e., using expressions in daily correspondence like 'the End of Days' (13 and 24) or a less familiar one used here for the first time in the new materials we have been considering, 'the End Time' (15 and 33)?  Together these terms are used four times in an extant document of only some 35 lines.  This also distinguishes this letter to a certain extent from the first one, where they were not used, at least not in extant fragments.

Besides these points, the exact nature and context of the 'split' between the group responsible for these writings and 'the majority of the people' is delineated here.  Its words are pregnant with meaning:  'we broke with the majority of the people and refused to mix with or go along with them on these matters.'  The word used in Line 7 is parash, the presumable root of the word 'Pharisee', but these are obviously not anything resembling normative Pharisees.  The very issue of 'mixing' in Line 8 (cf. Line 87 above) is, of course, related to that of 'improper separation' and not 'separating clean from unclean' just discussed above.  This sentence alone -- known but not revealed for over 35 years - would be sufficient to identify our group as sectatian -- at least according to their own evaluation.  And it definitively identifies them as a group -- a movement.

Finally, the issues over which the split occurred are brought into stark relief.  These are always firmly attached to 'the Law', repeatedly and unequivocally called here 'the Book of Moses' (11,16,24 and compare Line 6 of the last column of the Damascus Document below: 'the Torah of Moses').  Added to these are the Prophets, David (presumably Psalms), and some additional writings, probably Chronicles and the like (10-11); that is, we are at a point when the Bible, as we know it, has to a very considerable extent emerged and the Deuteronomic blessings and curses are recognized as being intimately connected with the arrival of 'the last days' (23-24).  These 'blessings and curses' will also be the focal point of the last column of the Damascus Document at the end of this chapter.

The vocabulary is rich in Qumranisms throughout, including references to hamas ('violence'), (macal) ('rebellion'), zanut ('fornication'), Sheker ('Lying'), and 'heart' and 'Belial' imagery.  Many of these phrases are to be found in the Damascus Document.  For instance, CD,iv.7, as we have seen, actually uses the terminology 'condemning the Wicked' (25) -- as opposed to 'justifying the Righteous' -- when describing the eschatological activity of the 'sons of Zadok.. in the last days'.

Probably reinforcing the impression that this is addressed to an actual king, the particular example of David is developed in Line 27ff., as are his works -- which were in their view 'Pious' (Hassadim).  Again the 'Way' terminology, so widespread in these materials, is evoked, a phrase, as we have seen, delineated in the Community Rule in terms of the 'study of the Torah' and known to the Book of Acts as a name for early Christianity in Palestine from the 40s to the 60s (22:4, 24:22, etc.)  Here, forgiveness from sin is found in 'seeking the Torah', just as in the Community Rule 'the Way in the wilderness' -- applied in the Gospels to John the Baptist's activities -- is interpreted as 'the study of the Torah' and, immediately thereafter, 'being zealous for the Law and the time of the Day of Vengeance' (note the parallel use of the word 'time' again).  This expression 'study of the Torah', familiar in Rabbinic Judaism too, will reappear in the last line of the Damascus Document below.

The text ends with a ringing affirmation, as we have noted above, of what can be described as the Jamesian position on 'justification': that  by 'doing' these 'works of the Law' however minute (note the emphasis on doing again) in the words of Gen. 15:6 and Ps. 106:31 -- a psalm packed with the vocabulary we are considering here -- 'it will be reckoned to you as Righteousness'.  As a result, you will have kept far from 'the consel of Belial' and 'at the End Time you will rejoice' (32-3).  This last most surely means either 'being resurrected' or 'enjoy the Heavenly Kingdom', or both -- an interesting proposition to be putting to a king or Community Leader in this time.  Note, too, the allusion to this word 'time' paralleling the second exegesis of 'the Way in the wilderness' material in 1QS, ix. 19 above.  The tone of the address, like that to King Jonathan below, is again most certainly warm and conciliatory.

For his part, Josephus provides a glimpse of how Daniel was seen by a first-century Jewish historian: 'One of the greatest prophets...for the books that he wrote (note the plural here) and left are read by us even now... He not only predicted the future, like the other prophets, but specified when the events would happen (Ant. 10.266-8)"



"This description would not only have relevance for this text, but also for the view of the prophets as soothsayers and fortune-tellers with special knowledge about the future in the first century, which we discussed in the introduction to this chapter.  The belief that Daniel had predicted not only what would happen, but when, was no doubt a significant factor in the timing of the war with Rome in AD 66.  For instance, the 70 years of wrath in Dan. 9:3 - a known interest in the War Scroll at Qumran - could have been seen as the period between the first outbreak of revolutionary activity at the time of Herod's death in 4 BC (not coincidentally the time assigned to Jesus' birth) and the final proclamation of the uprising (AD 66); or 'the time, two times, and a half' leading up to 'the End Time' in Daniel 12:7, the 3 1/2 years between the stoning of James the Just in AD 62 and the outbreak of the uprising. (p.64)"


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