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Introduction and Key


Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord's Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by
Todd Dennis, Curator




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(Major Fulfillment of Matt. 24/25 or Revelation in Past)

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070: Clement: First Epistle of Clement

075: Baruch: Apocalypse Of Baruch

075: Barnabus: Epistle of Barnabus

090: Esdras 2 / 4 Ezra

100: Odes of Solomon

150: Justin: Dialogue with Trypho

150: Melito: Homily of the Pascha

175: Irenaeus: Against Heresies

175: Clement of Alexandria: Stromata

198: Tertullian: Answer to the Jews

230: Origen: The Principles | Commentary on Matthew | Commentary on John | Against Celsus

248: Cyprian: Against the Jews

260: Victorinus: Commentary on the Apocalypse "Alcasar, a Spanish Jesuit, taking a hint from Victorinus, seems to have been the first (AD 1614) to have suggested that the Apocalyptic prophecies did not extend further than to the overthrow of Paganism by Constantine."

310: Peter of Alexandria

310: Eusebius: Divine Manifestation of our Lord

312: Eusebius: Proof of the Gospel

319: Athanasius: On the Incarnation

320: Eusebius: History of the Martyrs

325: Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History

345: Aphrahat: Demonstrations

367: Athanasius: The Festal Letters

370: Hegesippus: The Ruin of Jerusalem

386: Chrysostom: Matthew and Mark

387: Chrysostom: Against the Jews

408: Jerome: Commentary on Daniel

417: Augustine: On Pelagius

426: Augustine: The City of God

428: Augustine: Harmony

420: Cassian: Conferences

600: Veronica Legend

800: Aquinas: Eternity of the World




1265: Aquinas: Catena Aurea

1543: Luther: On the Jews

1555: Calvin: Harmony on Evangelists

1556: Jewel: Scripture

1586: Douay-Rheims Bible

1598: Jerusalem's Misery ; The dolefull destruction of faire Ierusalem by Tytus, the Sonne of Vaspasian

1603: Nero : A New Tragedy

1613: Carey: The Fair Queen of Jewry

1614: Alcasar: Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi

1654: Ussher: The Annals of the World

1658: Lightfoot: Commentary from Hebraica

1677: Crowne - The Destruction of Jerusalem

1764: Lardner: Fulfilment of our Saviour's Predictions

1776: Edwards: History of Redemption

1785: Churton: Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem

1801: Porteus: Our Lord's Prophecies

1802: Nisbett: The Coming of the Messiah

1805: Jortin: Remarks on Ecclesiastical History

1810: Clarke: Commentary On the Whole Bible

1816: Wilkins: Destruction of Jerusalem Related to Prophecies

1824: Galt: The Bachelor's Wife

1840: Smith: The Destruction of Jerusalem

1841: Currier: The Second Coming of Christ

1842: Bastow : A (Preterist) Bible Dictionary

1842: Stuart: Interpretation of Prophecy

1843: Lee: Dissertations on Eusebius

1845: Stuart: Commentary on Apocalypse

1849: Lee: Inquiry into Prophecy

1851: Lee: Visions of Daniel and St. John

1853: Newcombe: Observations on our Lord's Conduct as Divine Instructor

1854: Chamberlain: Restoration of Israel

1854: Fairbairn: The Typology of Scripture

1859: "Lee of Boston": Eschatology

1861: Maurice: Lectures on the Apocalypse

1863: Thomas Lewin : The Siege of Jerusalem

1865: Desprez: Daniel (Renounced Full Preterism)

1870: Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest

1871: Dale: Jewish Temple and Christian Church (PDF)

1879: Warren: The Parousia

1882: Farrar: The Early Days of Christianity

1883: Milton S. Terry: Biblical Hermeneutics

1888: Henty: For The Temple

1891: Farrar: Scenes in the days of Nero

1896: Lee : A Scholar of a Past Generation

1902: Church: Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

1917: Morris: Christ's Second Coming Fulfilled

1985: Lee: Jerusalem; Rome; Revelation (PDF)

1987: Chilton: The Days of Vengeance

2001: Fowler: Jesus - The Better Everything

2006: M. Gwyn Morgan - AD69 - The Year of Four Emperors

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Disquisitions and Notes on the Gospels:


John Hopkins Morison




Matthew 24:36-51 - The Coming Of The Son Of Man in Judgment To All.

At the thirty-sixth verse is the point of transition from God's judgment, as shown in the destruction of a wicked city and nation, to his judgment in its wider application to the whole family of man. All that has been predicted thus far applies primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, and would be accomplished before that generation should pass away. In the foreground of the prophetic picture lie the events which should precede, and the circumstances of dread and horror which should accompany, that great national catastrophe. These events are distinctly portrayed and their limits fixed. But beyond them, in a background reaching onward into eternity, is another and kindred class of events, which are also denoted by the coming of the Son of man, and of which the precise limits are not to be distinguished or defined. The time when the holy city should be overthrown had been fixed, and the signs of its approach pointed out. But of that day and hour, when this more extended series of events included in the general judgment of our race should be completed, no man could know, not the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only (Mark xiii. 32). Only He whose omniscient mind takes in all causes, and sees in them all future results as already present, can determine that.

The idea which fills out the whole picture or succession of pictures, and harmonizes all their parts, is the idea of a divine retribution. This shows itself in the foreground; then, 37-39, it goes back to the times of Noah and of Lot, and from the past goes on again to the future, dwelling at first on single examples, and finally gathering up all separate incidents and souls and ages into one overpowering scene of divine majesty and justice.

At first we seem to be lingering still around Jerusalem in those days of impending ruin, as if, after its destruction had been foretold and language pointing on to a wider range of judgments had been used, he at first, in his reference to the flood and to Sodom (Luke xvii. 28), employed images equally applicable to both classes of events. From this point, however, there is nothing which can be construed as applying, like what has gone before, distinctly and exclusively to the destruction of Jerusalem. The coming of the Son of man carries us into a wider field, until at length we see the whole human family standing before him in judgment.

A great deal is said about types. May it not be that all the language relating to the destruction of Jerusalem was meant to be a type of the general judgment? Is there not this double meaning running through it? In the sense in which the expressions type and double meaning are commonly used by theologians, we answer, No.

Nothing has added so much to the perplexity and confusion of ideas in the study of this discourse, as the notion of a double meaning running through it. But, in another sense, it is typical, as every fact in nature is, of something beyond itself. A falling globule of water, as an expression of the law of gravitation, is typical of the form and motion of the stars, and thus a type of the whole frame and structure of the material universe. Almost every incident or fact mentioned by our Saviour is so put by him, that it stands forth as the expression of a general law, and the type of whatever may be brought about in accordance with that law. The clothing of the lilies, and the feeding of the ravens, as an expression of the paternal benignity and providence of God, is made a type of the still greater kindness which he always exercises towards us. The corn of wheat (John xii. 24), which, except it fall into the ground and die, abideth alone, but if it die it bringeth forth much fruit, as an expression of the great law of self-sacrifice in order to the attainment of the highest results, is typical of every fact included under that law, and especially of the death of Christ and the unmeasured benefits resulting from it. So the destruction of Jerusalem, as an expression of the Divine justice, or of the judgments of God, is typical of every fact included under that law, and especially of the righteous retribution which awaits every soul, when at the close of its probation here it is called to judgment. The coming of the Son of man in the destruction which fell on a city and people hopelessly corrupt, as an expression of a great law, is typical of Christ's advent to judgment, with regard to every soul that appears before him. The difficulty usually is in detecting the deep and hidden law which serves as a bond of union between one class of facts and another. As, in natural science, superficial resemblances are disregarded, and, by a law of association which it is difficult for the uninitiated to recognize, the strawberry, the mountain-ash, the blackberry, and the apple are placed side by side in the same family, so in our Saviour's words facts are sometimes grouped together which have little or no superficial resemblance, though they are vitally connected as representatives of the same law. In this way language is employed in describing one class of facts, which applies with equal force to other and kindred, though apparently dissimilar, classes of facts. Almost all the language on which we have been commenting in this chapter, and which describes with such terrific power the events connected with the overthrow of the Jewish ritual and nation, designates with great force the general law of retribution in its application to our race; and with most readers this last is the only lesson which it teaches. On the other hand, when the subject is really changed, as it is in verse 36, from one to another kindred class of facts, those two classes of facts are in the mind and the language of Jesus bound together so closely, by the same uniting law, that only a slight and indefinite notice is given of the transition, and it is only by the closest attention that we can discover precisely where the change has taken place.

Jesus has just spoken, 3G, of the uncertainty of "that day and hour," and would make this uncertainty a reason for watchfulness to all. As, in the time of Noah, the flood came unexpectedly upon a world absorbed in other cares, so shall the coming of the Son of man be. No man can tell when his "day" shall come. "Then two men shall be in the field; one is taken, one is left. Two women grinding at the mill, turning with their hands the same stone; one is taken, one is left. Watch, therefore, for ye know not what day your Lord doth come." How could this language apply to the destruction of Jerusalem? Jesus has already, 15,16, pointed out the sign by which his followers are to be saved from that catastrophe. In the 34th verse he has limited the time within which that series of events is to take place. But the same idea of a divine retribution, which is there characterized as the coming of the Son of man, is here carried out in the divine retribution which awaits every man at the close of this mortal life, and which is to him the coming of the Son of man in judgment, when, as St. Paul describes it, " we must all appear before the judgment-scat of Christ." We are not all called at once. Even with those most intimately connected, " one is taken, one is left." No man knoweth when the call shall be made to him. How perfectly and with what a powerful warning does this language hold up before us the uncertainty of life, and the certainty of judgment! No philosophical precision of speech could address itself to the heart with such truth and power. The same idea is dwelt upon and enforced with still greater distinctness in the ensuing parables. The parable which closes this chapter, and which applies to "that" unknown "hour" which comes to all, is too direct and explicit in its appeal to each soul to allow of any labored comment. It applies to our conduct here as a preparation for that solemn moment when the Son of man shall come to each one of us at the close of our mortal labors, and the interests of this world shall be lost in the retributions of the world to come. He comes, first, to every soul in the offers of mercy and salvation which he makes. He comes to all, when they receive him, and strive to obey him, with loving and believing hearts. His final coming to each one is when he shall call us to account for the use that we have made of his gifts.


We have endeavored to explain this remarkable prediction of our Saviour. We have shown how the part of it which applied to "that generation " was fulfilled, not literally perhaps in all its parts, but exactly in accordance with its spirit. And this is the way in which we are to interpret and apply, not only the highest prophecy, but the highest poetry, the profoundest inductions of philosophy, and the grandest generalizations of transcendental mathematics. The literal, precise interpretation of a single expression is often false, and false in proportion to the magnitude of the truth which soars up in its majestic proportions through such words and images as our human forms of speech and thought may furnish. Any one may see that a literal, prosaic interpretation of King Lear, or Paradise Lost, sentence by sentence, in order to show precisely what facts are proved by them, would do no sort of justice to the grander movements of soul which fill out with their inspiration every part of those wonderful works. Far more in the prophetic words of our Saviour, which so far surpass all the other words that have ever been spoken, it is the letter that killeth. No one, whether as the advocate or the enemy of our faith, can understand them, unless he enter beneath the letter into the spirit, and thus catch as he may something of the inspiration, the largeness of thought and affluence of life, which they are fitted to awaken and impart. The humble inquirer, entering thus into the heart of our Saviour's words that he may cherish their spirit and obey their commands, will come nearer to the essential truth which they are designed to teach, than the ablest scholar, who, without religious sympathies, or with a superstitious regard to the letter, seeks to analyze them by applying critically, sentence by sentence, the rules of the grammar and lexicon.


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