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Introduction and Key


Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord's Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by
Todd Dennis, Curator




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070: Clement: First Epistle of Clement

075: Baruch: Apocalypse Of Baruch

075: Barnabus: Epistle of Barnabus

090: Esdras 2 / 4 Ezra

100: Odes of Solomon

150: Justin: Dialogue with Trypho

150: Melito: Homily of the Pascha

175: Irenaeus: Against Heresies

175: Clement of Alexandria: Stromata

198: Tertullian: Answer to the Jews

230: Origen: The Principles | Commentary on Matthew | Commentary on John | Against Celsus

248: Cyprian: Against the Jews

260: Victorinus: Commentary on the Apocalypse "Alcasar, a Spanish Jesuit, taking a hint from Victorinus, seems to have been the first (AD 1614) to have suggested that the Apocalyptic prophecies did not extend further than to the overthrow of Paganism by Constantine."

310: Peter of Alexandria

310: Eusebius: Divine Manifestation of our Lord

312: Eusebius: Proof of the Gospel

319: Athanasius: On the Incarnation

320: Eusebius: History of the Martyrs

325: Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History

345: Aphrahat: Demonstrations

367: Athanasius: The Festal Letters

370: Hegesippus: The Ruin of Jerusalem

386: Chrysostom: Matthew and Mark

387: Chrysostom: Against the Jews

408: Jerome: Commentary on Daniel

417: Augustine: On Pelagius

426: Augustine: The City of God

428: Augustine: Harmony

420: Cassian: Conferences

600: Veronica Legend

800: Aquinas: Eternity of the World




1265: Aquinas: Catena Aurea

1543: Luther: On the Jews

1555: Calvin: Harmony on Evangelists

1556: Jewel: Scripture

1586: Douay-Rheims Bible

1598: Jerusalem's Misery ; The dolefull destruction of faire Ierusalem by Tytus, the Sonne of Vaspasian

1603: Nero : A New Tragedy

1613: Carey: The Fair Queen of Jewry

1614: Alcasar: Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi

1654: Ussher: The Annals of the World

1658: Lightfoot: Commentary from Hebraica

1677: Crowne - The Destruction of Jerusalem

1764: Lardner: Fulfilment of our Saviour's Predictions

1776: Edwards: History of Redemption

1785: Churton: Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem

1801: Porteus: Our Lord's Prophecies

1802: Nisbett: The Coming of the Messiah

1805: Jortin: Remarks on Ecclesiastical History

1810: Clarke: Commentary On the Whole Bible

1816: Wilkins: Destruction of Jerusalem Related to Prophecies

1824: Galt: The Bachelor's Wife

1840: Smith: The Destruction of Jerusalem

1841: Currier: The Second Coming of Christ

1842: Bastow : A (Preterist) Bible Dictionary

1842: Stuart: Interpretation of Prophecy

1843: Lee: Dissertations on Eusebius

1845: Stuart: Commentary on Apocalypse

1849: Lee: Inquiry into Prophecy

1851: Lee: Visions of Daniel and St. John

1853: Newcombe: Observations on our Lord's Conduct as Divine Instructor

1854: Chamberlain: Restoration of Israel

1854: Fairbairn: The Typology of Scripture

1859: "Lee of Boston": Eschatology

1861: Maurice: Lectures on the Apocalypse

1863: Thomas Lewin : The Siege of Jerusalem

1865: Desprez: Daniel (Renounced Full Preterism)

1870: Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest

1871: Dale: Jewish Temple and Christian Church (PDF)

1879: Warren: The Parousia

1882: Farrar: The Early Days of Christianity

1883: Milton S. Terry: Biblical Hermeneutics

1888: Henty: For The Temple

1891: Farrar: Scenes in the days of Nero

1896: Lee : A Scholar of a Past Generation

1902: Church: Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

1917: Morris: Christ's Second Coming Fulfilled

1985: Lee: Jerusalem; Rome; Revelation (PDF)

1987: Chilton: The Days of Vengeance

2001: Fowler: Jesus - The Better Everything

2006: M. Gwyn Morgan - AD69 - The Year of Four Emperors

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1858 (Revised 1859)


Many passages occur in the New Testament, which are understood by some to indicate endless misery in the future life, and by others to indicate severe temporal judgments in the present life. In their interpretations of these passages, Universalists have been accused of wresting the Scriptures from their true import. And not unfrequently it has been remarked that, if Universalists are correct in their expositions, it is unaccountable that some of the pious and learned divines of the last two centuries should not have discovered the true meaning of the controverted passages. I do not mean that any reputable critic has urged this apology for an argument: but it is a favorite theme with many laymen; and some clergymen have not hesitated to adopt this expedient, to persuade their hearers that the views exhibited of the Scriptures by Universalists must necessarily be false; and that they are adopted and defended merely to give some semblance of support to a favorite theory.

To remove this objection, and to exhibit the true state of the case, is the principal object of the following pages. It will be discovered that these pious and learned divines, although they believed in the endless misery of the wicked, have yet given interpretations of the Scriptures similar to those now given by Universalists. Hence it follows that the charge alleged against Universalists, of thus interpreting Scripture merely to support a favorite theory, is unfounded and unjust; for orthodox commentators have given the same interpretations in spite of their own theory.

Of course, it is not pretended that any one orthodox commentator explains every disputed text in accordance with the views entertained by Universalists. But among them ah, some have furnished us authority on every text of this description, with a very few exceptions; some furnishing authority on one text, some on another.

It is proper to observe, in this place, that I would not be understood to adopt, as correct, all the expositions contained in the body of this work. The quotations are introduced, on each text, with reference to a single point; to wit, does this text teach or imply a state of misery in the future life, or does it not ? When any commentator allows that it does not, I consider him to be proper authority to quote in confirmation of the exposition given by Universalists, even though they do not agree with him in regard to what the text does mean. I will illustrate my meaning by a single example. By referring to the notes on Rev. vi. 1217, it will be seen that Hammond and Lightfoot interpret the passage as descriptive of the ' destruction of Jerusalem and the whole Jewish state:' the authors of the Assembly's Annotations think it relates to 'the troubles that were to befall the Roman empire;' while Clarke says that' ah1 these things may literally apply to the final destruction of Jerusalem, and to the revolution which took place in the Roman empire under Constantine the Great.' Clarke adds,' some apply them to the day of judgment; but they do not seem to have that awful event in view.' These writers differ among themselves concerning the precise meaning of the passage; but they agree that it is descriptive of events which should be accomplished on the earth, and that it does not refer to the future life. Without deciding which is correct, in regard to the point in which they differ, and even without necessarily adopting either opinion as correct, I quote their authority in relation only to the point before mentioned, does this passage teach or imply a state of misery in the future life, or does it not ?

They all agree that it does not, and declare that it has especial reference to temporal concerns, not having what is called the- day of general judgment in view. So much may suffice to show the propriety of agreeing with these commentators in relation to what a text does not mean, even though we may disagree in relation to what it does mean. I only add that, in a large majority of cases, the interpretations quoted in this work are precisely the same which are now given by Universalists; and which, when so given, are by some of our opposers stigmatized as foul heresy.


(On Matthew 25)
THIS chapter contains three parables, of which the passage quoted is the first. Some are of opinion that the whole chapter relates to the day of judgment in the world to come; others, that a part, only, relates to that day, and the remainder to the subject embraced in the preceding chapter; others, among whom are Universalists, that the whole of both chapters is to be understood as descriptive of events then near at hand, of which the destruction of Jerusalem, and the calamities attending it, form. a very conspicuous part. I shall first offer a few quotations on different parts of this chapter, as on the foregoing, and then mention some circumstances equally applicable to both, and to the opinions entertained in relation to them." (p. 134)


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