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Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord's Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by
Todd Dennis, Curator



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070: Clement: First Epistle of Clement

075: Baruch: Apocalypse Of Baruch

075: Barnabus: Epistle of Barnabus

090: Esdras 2 / 4 Ezra

100: Odes of Solomon

150: Justin: Dialogue with Trypho

150: Melito: Homily of the Pascha

175: Irenaeus: Against Heresies

175: Clement of Alexandria: Stromata

198: Tertullian: Answer to the Jews

230: Origen: The Principles | Commentary on Matthew | Commentary on John | Against Celsus

248: Cyprian: Against the Jews

260: Victorinus: Commentary on the Apocalypse "Alcasar, a Spanish Jesuit, taking a hint from Victorinus, seems to have been the first (AD 1614) to have suggested that the Apocalyptic prophecies did not extend further than to the overthrow of Paganism by Constantine."

310: Peter of Alexandria

310: Eusebius: Divine Manifestation of our Lord

312: Eusebius: Proof of the Gospel

319: Athanasius: On the Incarnation

320: Eusebius: History of the Martyrs

325: Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History

345: Aphrahat: Demonstrations

367: Athanasius: The Festal Letters

370: Hegesippus: The Ruin of Jerusalem

386: Chrysostom: Matthew and Mark

387: Chrysostom: Against the Jews

408: Jerome: Commentary on Daniel

417: Augustine: On Pelagius

426: Augustine: The City of God

428: Augustine: Harmony

420: Cassian: Conferences

600: Veronica Legend

800: Aquinas: Eternity of the World




1265: Aquinas: Catena Aurea

1543: Luther: On the Jews

1555: Calvin: Harmony on Evangelists

1556: Jewel: Scripture

1586: Douay-Rheims Bible

1598: Jerusalem's Misery ; The dolefull destruction of faire Ierusalem by Tytus, the Sonne of Vaspasian

1603: Nero : A New Tragedy

1613: Carey: The Fair Queen of Jewry

1614: Alcasar: Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi

1654: Ussher: The Annals of the World

1658: Lightfoot: Commentary from Hebraica

1677: Crowne - The Destruction of Jerusalem

1764: Lardner: Fulfilment of our Saviour's Predictions

1776: Edwards: History of Redemption

1785: Churton: Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem

1801: Porteus: Our Lord's Prophecies

1802: Nisbett: The Coming of the Messiah

1805: Jortin: Remarks on Ecclesiastical History

1810: Clarke: Commentary On the Whole Bible

1816: Wilkins: Destruction of Jerusalem Related to Prophecies

1824: Galt: The Bachelor's Wife

1840: Smith: The Destruction of Jerusalem

1841: Currier: The Second Coming of Christ

1842: Bastow : A (Preterist) Bible Dictionary

1842: Stuart: Interpretation of Prophecy

1843: Lee: Dissertations on Eusebius

1845: Stuart: Commentary on Apocalypse

1849: Lee: Inquiry into Prophecy

1851: Lee: Visions of Daniel and St. John

1853: Newcombe: Observations on our Lord's Conduct as Divine Instructor

1854: Chamberlain: Restoration of Israel

1854: Fairbairn: The Typology of Scripture

1859: "Lee of Boston": Eschatology

1861: Maurice: Lectures on the Apocalypse

1863: Thomas Lewin : The Siege of Jerusalem

1865: Desprez: Daniel (Renounced Full Preterism)

1870: Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest

1871: Dale: Jewish Temple and Christian Church (PDF)

1879: Warren: The Parousia

1882: Farrar: The Early Days of Christianity

1883: Milton S. Terry: Biblical Hermeneutics

1888: Henty: For The Temple

1891: Farrar: Scenes in the days of Nero

1896: Lee : A Scholar of a Past Generation

1902: Church: Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

1917: Morris: Christ's Second Coming Fulfilled

1985: Lee: Jerusalem; Rome; Revelation (PDF)

1987: Chilton: The Days of Vengeance

2001: Fowler: Jesus - The Better Everything

2006: M. Gwyn Morgan - AD69 - The Year of Four Emperors

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Evidences of Christianity: A Debate

Alexander Campbell
and Robert Owen

[Table of Contents]


Prophecy, indeed, seems designed to confirm faith as the events occur, as well as to produce faith by contemplating those which have been fulfilled. But we shall find that, beside the predictions uttered by the Savior concerning his own demise, and all the circumstances attendant upon it, he foretold one event of such notoriety and importance as to confirm the faith of one generation and to produce faith in all subsequent generations. This I specify as one of great interest and notoriety. This was the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple, and the dispersion of the nation with all the tremendous adjuncts of this national catastrophe.

      Upon one occasion, when the sun was beaming upon the beautiful gate of the temple, which radiated with all conceivable splendor, when that edifice stood in all the glistening beauties of the precious metals, costly stones, and the finest specimens of architecture, the Savior took occasion to tell its fate, and that of the people who frequented it, in [369] such language as precluded the possibility of mistake in the interpretation. No prediction was more minute or more circumstantial than this one, and none could be more literal or direct. Both Matthew and Luke give us this prediction; the former in the 24th, and the latter in the 21st chapter of his testimony. The complete desolation of the temple to the foundation, to the removing of every stone, is foretold. The compassing of the city with armies, the slaughter of the inhabitants, and the captivity of those who escaped, are described. The fortunes of his disciples at this time, with all the terrors of the siege, and all the tremendous prodigies in the heavens and the earth accompanying these desolations, are named. And in the conclusion the audience is assured that all these things should happen before forty years--"before that generation should pass away." Now, this prophecy was written, published and read through Judea, and mentioned in the apostolic epistles for years before it happened; and a general expectation of this event pervaded the whole Christian communities from Jerusalem to Rome, and, indeed, through all the Roman provinces. The allusions to these predictions are frequent in the apostolic writings. It was necessary they should, for this reason; the Jews, as long as they possessed the government of Judea, the temple, and the metropolis; as long as they had any particle of influence at home or abroad, they used it with relentless cruelty against the Christians. The Apostles had to succor the minds of their persecuted brethren, and exhort them to patience and perseverance by reminding them of the speedy dispersion of them among the nations. So that all the Christians throughout the Roman empire looked for this catastrophe; and so it came to pass that such of the Christians as were in Jerusalem and Judea, about the time of the siege of Titus, fled according to the directions given by the Savior; and thus not a believing Jew perished in the siege.

      We lose many of the allusions to this event in the epistles, from our irrational modes of explanation, and neglect of the history of those times. Of these allusions the following specimens may suffice: To the church at Rome Paul says: "God will bruise Satan, or the adversary, under your feet soon"--not the Devil, as some ignorantly suppose. Adversary, in English, is Satan in Hebrew. "Get thee behind me, Satan," is a terrible translation of the Savior's address to Peter. The synagogue of Satan was only a synagogue of unbelieving Jews adverse to Christianity. "Brethren in Rome," says Paul, "God will soon put down the adversary of your religion, the Jews, who persecute you. Yes, their power to oppose you will soon be past." This clearly alludes to the expectation founded upon the prediction before us. [370]

      Paul more plainly intimates the destruction of the Jewish power in his first letter to the Thessalonians, written eighteen years before the siege: "Brethren in Thessalonica, you have suffered from your Gentile brethren such persecution as the congregations in Judea have suffered from their Jewish brethren, who both killed the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and have greatly persecuted us, and do not please God, and are contrary to all men; hindering us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved; that they are always filling up the measure of their iniquities. But the WRATH OF GOD is coming upon them at length."

      Indeed, so frequent were the allusions to this prophecy, both in the public discourses and writings of the apostles, that their enemies began to mock them, and treat them as if they had been imposing upon the credulity of their cotemporaries. Hence, such allusions as these: "Where is the promise of his coming; for, from the times the fathers have fallen asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation?" Thus was Peter upbraided six years before the siege. The old Apostle, however, is not discouraged, being assured that he would make good his promise. "Yes," says he, "they think that we have too long talked of the coming of the Lord to avenge the iniquities of these people. They think that we mock your fears, and they say, 'The Lord long delays his coming to execute his vengeance upon this stubborn people.' But, my brethren, the Lord does not delay in the manner some account delaying; but he exercises long-suffering toward us, that all might be brought to reformation."

      In the letter to the Hebrews, written about six or seven years before the siege, Paul speaks to the persecuted Jewish brethren in the same style: "Yet a very little while, and he that is coming will come, and will not tarry." "Persevere, then, brethren, in doing the will of the Lord, that you may obtain the promised reward." James, too, in his letter of the same date, addresses both to the believing and unbelieving Jews on the impending vengeance. The wealthy and infidel Jew he commands to "weep because of the miseries coming upon them;" and for suffering Christians he animates with the hope that "the coming of the Lord is nigh." Thus do all the Apostles speak of this event with the same certainty as if it had actually happened.

      I need not detail the awful accomplishment of this prediction. Josephus has done this in awful colors. Tacitus, too, relates some of the circumstances. Every word of the prediction was exactly fulfilled, even to the plowing up of the foundations of the temple. It is remarkable that, on the tenth day of August, the very same day the [371] temple and city were laid waste by the Babylonians, the temple was burned by Titus' army.3

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14 Dec 2004


It is becoming more and more clear to me that we need a preterist bible translation. As mentioned in this article so many words are mistranslated due to a misunderstanding of the biblical times. The fiery judgement predicted by Jesus also means we must take a fresh look at the way in which the word Hell has been mistranslated. Mike

14 Dec 2004


Is this the Campbell of the Campbellites? I am not being sarcastic, I am just currious if this is the CoC Campbell or not.

15 Dec 2004


Yeah, this is that Alexander Campbell, although most whom people call "Campbellites" would consider the term "Campbellite" derogatory. Kenneth P.

Date: 15 Feb 2010
Time: 13:12:37

Your Comments:

I would suggest reading beyond the end of the quote

Campbell goes into more details in the Second Coming