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Introduction and Key


Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord's Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by
Todd Dennis, Curator




Including the "Prophecy of Abdias" His prophecy is the shortest of any in number of words, but yields to none, says ST. JEROME, in the sublimity of mysteries. It contains but one chapter. (below)

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070: Clement: First Epistle of Clement

075: Baruch: Apocalypse Of Baruch

075: Barnabus: Epistle of Barnabus

090: Esdras 2 / 4 Ezra

100: Odes of Solomon

150: Justin: Dialogue with Trypho

150: Melito: Homily of the Pascha

175: Irenaeus: Against Heresies

175: Clement of Alexandria: Stromata

198: Tertullian: Answer to the Jews

230: Origen: The Principles | Commentary on Matthew | Commentary on John | Against Celsus

248: Cyprian: Against the Jews

260: Victorinus: Commentary on the Apocalypse "Alcasar, a Spanish Jesuit, taking a hint from Victorinus, seems to have been the first (AD 1614) to have suggested that the Apocalyptic prophecies did not extend further than to the overthrow of Paganism by Constantine."

310: Peter of Alexandria

310: Eusebius: Divine Manifestation of our Lord

312: Eusebius: Proof of the Gospel

319: Athanasius: On the Incarnation

320: Eusebius: History of the Martyrs

325: Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History

345: Aphrahat: Demonstrations

367: Athanasius: The Festal Letters

370: Hegesippus: The Ruin of Jerusalem

386: Chrysostom: Matthew and Mark

387: Chrysostom: Against the Jews

408: Jerome: Commentary on Daniel

417: Augustine: On Pelagius

426: Augustine: The City of God

428: Augustine: Harmony

420: Cassian: Conferences

600: Veronica Legend

800: Aquinas: Eternity of the World




1265: Aquinas: Catena Aurea

1543: Luther: On the Jews

1555: Calvin: Harmony on Evangelists

1556: Jewel: Scripture

1586: Douay-Rheims Bible

1598: Jerusalem's Misery ; The dolefull destruction of faire Ierusalem by Tytus, the Sonne of Vaspasian

1603: Nero : A New Tragedy

1613: Carey: The Fair Queen of Jewry

1614: Alcasar: Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi

1654: Ussher: The Annals of the World

1658: Lightfoot: Commentary from Hebraica

1677: Crowne - The Destruction of Jerusalem

1764: Lardner: Fulfilment of our Saviour's Predictions

1776: Edwards: History of Redemption

1785: Churton: Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem

1801: Porteus: Our Lord's Prophecies

1802: Nisbett: The Coming of the Messiah

1805: Jortin: Remarks on Ecclesiastical History

1810: Clarke: Commentary On the Whole Bible

1816: Wilkins: Destruction of Jerusalem Related to Prophecies

1824: Galt: The Bachelor's Wife

1840: Smith: The Destruction of Jerusalem

1841: Currier: The Second Coming of Christ

1842: Bastow : A (Preterist) Bible Dictionary

1842: Stuart: Interpretation of Prophecy

1843: Lee: Dissertations on Eusebius

1845: Stuart: Commentary on Apocalypse

1849: Lee: Inquiry into Prophecy

1851: Lee: Visions of Daniel and St. John

1853: Newcombe: Observations on our Lord's Conduct as Divine Instructor

1854: Chamberlain: Restoration of Israel

1854: Fairbairn: The Typology of Scripture

1859: "Lee of Boston": Eschatology

1861: Maurice: Lectures on the Apocalypse

1863: Thomas Lewin : The Siege of Jerusalem

1865: Desprez: Daniel (Renounced Full Preterism)

1870: Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest

1871: Dale: Jewish Temple and Christian Church (PDF)

1879: Warren: The Parousia

1882: Farrar: The Early Days of Christianity

1883: Milton S. Terry: Biblical Hermeneutics

1888: Henty: For The Temple

1891: Farrar: Scenes in the days of Nero

1896: Lee : A Scholar of a Past Generation

1902: Church: Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

1917: Morris: Christ's Second Coming Fulfilled

1985: Lee: Jerusalem; Rome; Revelation (PDF)

1987: Chilton: The Days of Vengeance

2001: Fowler: Jesus - The Better Everything

2006: M. Gwyn Morgan - AD69 - The Year of Four Emperors

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Douay-Rheims Version of the Holy Bible

Commentary By William Allen, Richard Bristow, Thomas Worthington

Luke 21:32. Amen, I say to you, this generation shall not pass away till all things be fulfilled.

Ezechiel Chapter 47

The vision of the holy waters issuing out from under the temple: the borders of the land to be divided among the twelve tribes.

47:1. And he brought me again to the gate of the house, and behold waters issued out from under the threshold of the house toward the east: for the forefront of the house looked toward the east: but the waters came down to the right side of the temple to the south part of the altar.

Waters. . .These waters are not to be understood literally (for there were none such that flowed from the temple); but mystically, of the baptism of Christ, and of his doctrine and his grace: the trees that grow on the banks are Christian virtues: the fishes are Christians, that spiritually live in and by these holy waters, the fishermen are the apostles, and apostolic preachers: the fenny places, where there is no health, are such as by being out of the church are separated from these waters of life.

Daniel 9:26-27

9:26. And after sixty-two weeks Christ shall be slain: and the people that shall deny him shall not be his. And a people, with their leader, that shall come, shall destroy the city, and the sanctuary: and the end thereof shall be waste, and after the end of the war the appointed desolation.

A people with their leader. . .The Romans under Titus.

9:27. And he shall confirm the covenant with many, in one week: and in
the half of the week the victim and the sacrifice shall fail: and there
shall be in the temple the abomination of desolation: and the
desolation shall continue even to the consummation, and to the end.

In the half of the week. . .or, in the middle of the week, etc. Because
Christ preached three years and a half: and then by his sacrifice upon
the cross abolished all the sacrifices of the law.--Ibid. The
abomination of desolation. . .Some understand this of the profanation of
the temple by the crimes of the Jews, and by the bloody faction of the
zealots. Others of the bringing in thither the ensigns and standard of
the pagan Romans. Others, in fine, distinguish three different times of
desolation: viz., that under Antiochus; that when the temple was
destroyed by the Romans; and the last near the end of the world under
Antichrist. To all which, as they suppose, this prophecy may have a

Hosea 2:21

2:21. And it shall come to pass in that day: I will hear, saith the
Lord, I will hear the heavens, and they shall hear the earth.

Hear the heavens, etc. . .All shall conspire in favour of the church,
which in the following verse is called Jezrahel, that is, the seed of


JOEL, whose name, according to ST. JEROME, signifies THE LORD GOD: or, as others say, THE COMING DOWN OF GOD: prophesied about the same time in the kingdom of Judea, as OSEE did in the kingdom of Israel. He foretells under figure the great evils that were coming upon the people for their sins: earnestly exhorts them to repentance: and comforts them with the promise of a TEACHER OF JUSTICE, viz., CHRIST JESUS OUR LORD, and of the coming down of his holy SPIRIT.

3:18. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall
drop down sweetness, aud the hills shall flow with milk: and waters
shall flow through all the rivers of Juda: and a fountain shall come
forth of the house of the Lord, and shall water the torrent of thorns.

A fountain shall come forth of the house of the Lord, etc. . .Viz., the
fountain of grace in the church militant, and of glory in the church
triumphant: which shall water the torrent or valley of thorns, that is,
the souls that before, like barren ground brought forth nothing but
thorns; or that were afflicted with the thorns of crosses and

3:20. And Judea shall be inhabited for ever, and Jerusalem to
generation and generation.

Judea--and Jerusalem. . .That is, the spiritual Jerusalem, viz., the
church of Christ.

Amos Chapter 9

The certainty of the desolation of Israel: the restoring of the
tabernacle of David, and the conversion of the Gentiles to the church;
which shall flourish for ever.

Micheas Chapter 5

The birth of Christ in Bethlehem: his reign and spiritual conquests.

5:1. Now shalt thou be laid waste, O daughter of the robber: they have
laid siege against us, with a rod shall they strike the cheek of the
judge of Israel.

Daughter of the robber. . .Some understand this of Babylon; which robbed and pillaged the temple of God: others understand it of Jerusalem; by reason of the many rapines and oppressions committed there.


2:17. For the iniquity of Libanus shall cover thee, and the ravaging of
beasts shall terrify them because of the blood of men, and the iniquity
of the land, and of the city, and of all that dwell therein.

The iniquity of Libanus. . .That is, the iniquity committed by the
Chaldeans against the temple of God, signified here by the name of

Zacharias Chapter 2

2:4. And he said to him: Run, speak to this young man, saying:
Jerusalem shall be inhabited without walls, by reason of the multitude
of men, and of the beasts in the midst thereof.

Jerusalem shall be inhabited without walls. . .This must be understood
of the spiritual Jerusalem, the church of Christ.

Zacharias Chapter 3

3:9. For behold the stone that I have laid before Jesus: upon one stone
there are seven eyes: behold I will grave the graving thereof, saith
the Lord of hosts: and I will take away the iniquity of that land in
one day.

The stone. . .Another emblem of Christ, the rock, foundation, and corner
stone of his church.--Ibid. Seven eyes. . .The manifold providence of
Christ over his church, or the seven gifts of the spirit of God.--Ibid.
One day. . .Viz., the day of the passion of Christ, the source of all
our good: when this precious stone shall be graved, that is, cut and
pierced, with whips, thorns, nails, and spear.

The vision of the four chariots. Crowns are ordered for Jesus the high
priest, as a type of Christ.

Zacharias Chapter 6

6:1. And I turned, and lifted up my eyes, and saw: and behold four chariots came out from the midst of two mountains: and the mountains were mountains of brass.

Four chariots. . .The four great empires of the Chaldeans, Persians, Grecians, and Romans. Or perhaps by the fourth chariot are represented the kings of Egypt and of Asia, the descendants of Ptolemeus and Seleucus.

6:6. That in which were the black horses went forth into the land of the north, and the white went forth after them: and the grisled went forth to the land the south.

The land of the north. . .So Babylon is called; because it lay to the north in respect of Jerusalem. The black horses, that is, the Medes and Persians: and after them Alexander and his Greeks, signified by the white horses, went thither because they conquered Babylon, executed upon it the judgments of God, which is signified, ver. 8, by the expression of quieting his spirit.--Ibid. The land of the south. . .Egypt, which lay to the south of Jerusalem, and was occupied first by Ptolemeus, and then by the Romans.

6:13. Yea, he shall build a temple to the Lord: and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit, and rule upon his throne: and he shall be a priest upon his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.

Between them both. . .That is, he shall unite in himself the two offices or dignities of king and priest.

Zacharias Chapter 8

Joyful promises to Jerusalem: fully verified in the church of Christ.

Zacharias Chapter 9

God will defend his church, and bring over even her enemies to the
faith. The meek coming of Christ, to bring peace, to deliver the
captives by his blood, and to give us all good things.

9:7. And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his abominations from between his teeth: and even he shall be left to our
God, and he shall be as a governor in Juda, and Accaron as a Jebusite.

His blood. . .It is spoken of the Philistines, and particularly of
Azotus, (where the temple of Dagon was,) and contains a prophecy of the conversion of that people from their bloody sacrifices and abominations to the worship of the true God.

9:16. And the Lord their God will save them in that day, as the flock
of his people: for holy stones shall be lifted up over his land.

Holy stones. . .The apostles, who shall be as pillars and monuments in
the church.

Zacharias Chapter 10

God is to be sought to, and not idols. The victories of his church,
which shall arise originally from the Jewish nation.

Zacharias Chapter 11

The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple. God's dealings with the Jews, and their reprobation.

11:1. Open thy gates, O Libanus, and let fire devour thy cedars.   O Libanus. . .So Jerusalem, and more particularly the temple, is called by the prophets, from its height, and from its being built of the cedars of Libanus.--Ibid. Thy cedars. . .Thy princes and chief men."

11:2. Howl, thou fir tree, for the cedar is fallen, for the mighty are
laid waste: howl, ye oaks of Basan, because the fenced forest is cut down.

11:3. The voice of the howling of the shepherds, because their glory is laid waste: the voice of the roaring of the lions, because the pride of the Jordan is spoiled.

11:4. Thus saith the Lord my God: Feed the flock of the slaughter,

11:5. Which they that possessed, slew, and repented not, and they sold them, saying: Blessed be the Lord, we are become rich: and their shepherds spared them not.

11:6. And I will no more spare the inhabitants of the land, saith the Lord: behold I will deliver the men, every one into his neighbour's hand, and into the hand of his king: and they shall destroy the land, and I will not deliver it out of their hand.

Every one into his neighbour's hand, etc. . .This alludes to the last siege of Jerusalem, in which the different factions of the Jews destroyed one another; and they that remained fell into the hands of their king, that is, of the Roman emperor, of whom they had said, John 19.15, we have no king but Caesar.

11:7. And I will feed the flock of slaughter for this, O ye poor of the flock. And I took unto me two rods, one I called Beauty, and the other I called a Cord, and I fed the flock.

Two rods. . .Or shepherd's staves, meaning the different ways of God's dealing with his people; the one, by sweet means, called the rod of Beauty: the other, by bands and punishments, called the Cord. And where both these rods are made of no use or effect by the obstinacy of sinners, the rods are broken, and such sinners are given up to a reprobate sense, as the Jews were.

11:8. And I cut off three shepherds in one month, and my soul was straitened in their regard: for their soul also varied in my regard.

Three shepherds in one month. . .That is, in a very short time. By these three shepherds probably are meant the latter princes and high priests of the Jews, whose reign was short.

11:9. And I said: I will not feed you: that which dieth, let it die:
and that which is cut off, let it be cut off: and let the rest devour
every one the flesh of his neighbour.

11:10. And I took my rod that was called Beauty, and I cut it asunder to make void my covenant, which I had made with all people.

11:11. And it was made void in that day: and so the poor of the flock that keep for me, understood that it is the word of the Lord.

11:12. And I said to them: If it be good in your eyes, bring hither my wages: and if not, be quiet. And they weighed for my wages thirty pieces of silver.

11:13. And the Lord said to me: Cast it to the statuary, a handsome price, that I was prized at by them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and I cast them into the house of the Lord to the statuary.

The statuary. . .The Hebrew word signifies also a potter.

11:14. And I cut off my second rod that was called a Cord, that I might break the brotherhood between Juda and Israel.

11:15. And the Lord said to me: Take to thee yet the instruments of a foolish shepherd.

A foolish shepherd. . .This was to represent the foolish, that is, the wicked princes and priests that should rule the people, before their utter desolation.

11:16. For behold I will raise up a shepherd in the land, who shall not visit what is forsaken, nor seek what is scattered, nor heal what is broken, nor nourish that which standeth, and he shall eat the flesh of the fat ones, and break their hoofs.

11:17. O shepherd, and idol, that forsaketh the flock: the sword upon his arm and upon his right eye: his arm shall quite wither away, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened.

Zechariah 14

14:10. And all the land shall return even to the desert, from the hill to Remmon to the south of Jerusalem: and she shall be exalted, and shall dwell in her own place, from the gate of Benjamin even to the place of the former gate, and even to the gate of the corners: and from the tower of Hananeel even to the king's winepresses.

All the land shall return, etc. . .This, in some measure, was verified by the means of the Machabees: but is rather to be taken in a spiritual sense, as relating to the propagation of the church, and kingdom of Christ, the true Jerusalem, which alone shall never fall under the anathema of destruction, or God's curse.

14:11. And people shall dwell in it, and there shall be no more an anathema: but Jerusalem shall sit secure.

14:12. And this shall be the plague wherewith the Lord shall strike all nations that have fought against Jerusalem: the flesh of every one shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.

The flesh of every one shall consume, etc. . .Such judgments as these have often fallen upon the persecutors of God's church, as appears by many instances in history.

14:13. In that day there shall be a great tumult from the Lord among them: and a man shall take the hand of his neighbour, and his hand shall be clasped upon his neighbour's hand.

14:14. And even Juda shall fight against Jerusalem: and the riches of all nations round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, and garments in great abundance.

Even Juda, etc. . .The carnal Jews, and other false brothers, shall join in persecuting the church.

14:15. And the destruction of the horse, and of the mule, and of the camel, and of the ass, and of all the beasts, that shall be in those tents, shall be like this destruction.

Shall be like this destruction. . .That is, the beasts shall be
destroyed as well as the men: the common soldiers as well as their leaders.

14:16. And all they that shall be left of all nations that came against Jerusalem, shall go up from year to year, to adore the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.

They that shall be left, etc. . .That is, many of them that persecuted the church shall be converted to its faith and communion.--Ibid. To keep the feast of tabernacles. . .This feast was kept by the Jews in memory of their sojourning forty years in the desert, in their way to the land of promise. And in the spiritual sense is duly kept by all such Christians as in their earthly pilgrimage are continually advancing toward their true home, the heavenly Jerusalem; by the help of the sacraments and sacrifice of the church. And they that neglect this must
not look for the kind showers of divine grace, to give fruitfulness to their souls.

14:17. And it shall come to pass, that he that shall not go up of the families of the land to Jerusalem, to adore the King, the Lord of hosts, there shall be no rain upon them.

14:18. And if the family of Egypt go not up nor come: neither shall it be upon them, but there shall be destruction wherewith the Lord will strike all nations that will not go up to keep the feast of tabernacles.

14:19. This shall be the sin of Egypt, and this the sin of all nations, that will not go up to keep the feast of tabernacles.

14:20. In that day that which is upon the bridle of the horse shall be holy to the Lord: and the caldrons in the house of the Lord shall be as the phials before the altar.

That which is upon the bridle, etc. . .The golden ornaments of the bridles, etc., shall be turned into offerings in the house of God. And there shall be an abundance of caldrons and phials for the sacrifices of the temple; by which is meant, under a figure, the great resort there shall be to the temple, that is, to the church of Christ, and her sacrifice.

14:21. And every caldron in Jerusalem and Juda shall be sanctified to the Lord of hosts: and all that sacrifice shall come, and take of them, and shall seethe in them: and the merchant shall be no more in the house of the Lord of hosts in that day.

The merchant shall be no more, etc. . .Or, as some render it, The Chanaanite shall be no more, etc., that is, the profane and unbelievers shall have no title to be in the house of the Lord. Or there shall be no occasion for buyers or sellers of oxen, or sheep, or doves, in the house of God, such as Jesus Christ cast out of the temple.

Malachi 4:6

4:6. And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers: lest I come, and strike the earth with anathema.

He shall turn the heart, etc. . .By bringing over the Jews to the faith of Christ, he shall reconcile them to their fathers, viz., the partiarchs and prophets; whose hearts for many ages have been turned away from them, because of their refusing to believe in Christ.--Ibid. With anathema. . .In the Hebrew, Cherem, that is, with utter destruction.

Matthew 23:35-36

35. That upon you may come all the just blood that hath been shed upon the earth, from the blood of Abel the just, even unto the blood of Zacharias the son of Barachias, whom you killed between the temple and the altar.

That upon you may come, etc. . .Not that they should suffer more than their own sins justly deserved; but that the justice of God should now fall upon them with such a final vengeance, once for all, as might comprise all the different kinds of judgments and punishments, that had at any time before been inflicted for the shedding of just blood.

23:36. Amen I say to you, all these things shall come upon this generation.

Matthew Chapter 24

Christ foretells the destruction of the temple, with the signs that shall come before it and before the last judgment. We must always watch.

24:1. And Jesus being come out of the temple, went away. And his disciples came to shew him the buildings of the temple.

24:2. And he answering, said to them: Do you see all these things? Amen I say to you, there shall not be left here a stone upon a stone that shall not be destroyed.

24:3. And when he was sitting on mount Olivet, the disciples came to him privately, saying: Tell us when shall these things be? And what shall be the sign of thy coming and of the consummation of the world?

24:4. And Jesus answering, said to them: Take heed that no man seduce you.

24:5. For many will come in my name saying, I am Christ. And they will seduce many.

24:6. And you shall hear of wars and rumours of wars. See that ye be not troubled. For these things must come to pass: but the end is not yet.

24:7. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: And there shall be pestilences and famines and earthquakes in places.

24:8. Now all these are the beginnings of sorrows.

24:9. Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted and shall put you to death: and you shall be hated by all nations for my name's sake.

24:10. And then shall many be scandalized and shall betray one another and shall hate one another.

24:11. And many false prophets shall rise and shall seduce many.

24:12. And because iniquity hath abounded, the charity of many shall grow cold.

24:13. But he that shall persevere to the end, he shall be saved.

24:14. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world, for a testimony to all nations: and then shall the consummation come.

24:15. When therefore you shall see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place: he that readeth let him understand.

24:16. Then they that are in Judea, let them flee to the mountains:

24:17. And he that is on the housetop, let him not come down to take any thing out of his house:

24:18. And he that is in the field, let him not go back to take his coat.

24:19. And woe to them that are with child and that give suck in those days.

24:20. But pray that your flight be not in the winter or on the sabbath.

24:21. For there shall be then great tribulation, such as hath not been from the beginning of the world until now, neither shall be.

24:22. And unless those days had been shortened, no flesh should be saved: but for the sake of the elect those days shall be shortened.

24:23. Then if any man shall say to you, Lo here is Christ, or there: do not believe him.

24:24. For there shall arise false Christs and false prophets and shall shew great signs and wonders, insomuch as to deceive (if possible) even the elect.

24:25. Behold I have told it to you, beforehand.

24:26. If therefore they shall say to you, Behold he is in the desert: go ye not out. Behold he is in the closets: believe it not.

24:27. For as lightning cometh out of the east and appeareth even into the west: so shall also the cowling of the Son of man be.

24:28. Wheresoever the body shall be, there shall the eagles also be gathered together.

Wheresoever, etc. . .The coming of Christ shall be sudden, and manifest to all the world, like lightning: and wheresoever he shall come, thither shall all mankind be gathered to him, as eagles are gathered
about a dead body.

24:29. And immediately after the tribulation of those days, the sun shall be darkened and the moon shall not give her light and the stars shall fall from heaven and the powers of heaven shall be moved.

The stars. . .Or flaming meteors resembling stars.

24:30. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven. And then shall all tribes of the earth mourn: and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with much power and majesty.

The sign, etc. . .The cross of Christ.

24:31. And he shall send his angels with a trumpet and a great voice: and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the farthest parts of the heavens to the utmost bounds of them.

24:32. And from the fig tree learn a parable: When the branch thereof is now tender and the leaves come forth, you know that summer is nigh.

24:33. So you also, when you shall see all these things, know ye that it is nigh, even at the doors.

24:34. Amen I say to you that this generation shall not pass till all these things be done.

24:35. Heaven and earth shall pass: but my words shall not pass.

Shall pass. . .Because they shall be changed at the end of the world into a new heaven and new earth.

24:36. But of that day and hour no one knoweth: no, not the angels of heaven, but the Father alone.

24:37. And as in the days of Noe, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:38. For, as in the days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, even till that day in which Noe entered into the ark:

24:39. And they knew not till the flood came and took them all away: so also shall the coming of the Son of man be.

24:40. Then two shall be in the field. One shall be taken and one shall be left.

24:41. Two women shall be grinding at the mill. One shall be taken and one shall be left.

24:42. Watch ye therefore, because you know not what hour your Lord will come.

24:43. But this know ye, that, if the goodman of the house knew at what hour the thief would come, he would certainly watch and would not suffer his house to be broken open.

24:44. Wherefore be you also ready, because at what hour you know not the Son of man will come.

24:45. Who, thinkest thou, is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath appointed over his family, to give them meat in season?

24:46. Blessed is that servant, whom when his lord shall come he shall find so doing.

24:47. Amen I say to you: he shall place him over all his goods.

24:48. But if that evil servant shall say in his heart: My lord is long a coming:

24:49. And shall begin to strike his fellow servants and shall eat and drink with drunkards:

24:50. The lord of that servant shall come in a day that he hopeth not and at an hour that he knoweth not:

24:51. And shall separate him and appoint his portion with the hypocrites. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Galatians 4:3

4:3. So we also, when we were children, were serving under the elements of the world.

Under the elements, etc. . .That is, under the first rudiments of religion, in which the carnal Jews were trained up; or under those corporeal creatures, used in their manifold rites, sacrifices, and sacraments.

Hebrews 9:28

9:28. So also Christ was offered once to exhaust the sins of many. The second time he shall appear without sin to them that expect him unto salvation.

To exhaust. . .That is, to empty, or draw out to the very bottom, by a plentiful and perfect redemption.

Apocalypse 1:1

1:1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to make known to his servants the things which must shortly come to pass: and signified, sending by his angel to his servant John,

The things which must shortly come;. . .and again it is said, ver. 3, The time is at hand. . .This can not be meant of all the things prophesied in the Apocalypse, where mention is made also of the day of judgment, and of the glory of heaven at the end of the world. That some things were to come to pass shortly, is evident, by what is said to the Seven Churches, chap. 2 and 3, Or that the persecutions foretold should begin shortly. Or that these words signified, that all time is short, and that from the coming of Christ, we are now in the last age or last hour. See 1 John 2.18.

Apocalypse 9:3

9:3. And from the smoke of the pit there came out locusts upon the earth. And power was given to them, as the scorpions of the earth have power.

There came out locusts. . .These may be devils in Antichrist's time, having the appearance of locusts, but large and monstrous, as here described. Or they may be real locusts, but of an extraordinary size and monstrous shape, such as were never before seen on earth, sent to torment those who have not the sign (or seal) of God on their foreheads. Some commentators by these locusts understand heretics, and especially those heretics, that sprung from Jews, and with them denied the divinity of Jesus Christ; as Theodotus, Praxeas, Noetus, Paul of Samosata, Sabellius, Arius, etc. These were great enemies of the Christian religion; they tormented and infected the souls of men, stinging them like scorpions, with the poison of their heresies. Others have explained these locusts, and other animals, mentioned in different places throughout this sacred and mystical book, in a most absurd, fanciful, and ridiculous manner; they make Abaddon the Pope, and the locusts to be friars mendicant, etc. Here it is thought proper, not to enter into any controversy upon that subject, as the inventors of these fancies have been already answered, and fully refuted by many controvertists: besides, those who might be inposed on by such chimerical writers, are in these days much better informed.

Apocalypse 16:16

16:16. And he shall gather them together into a place which in Hebrew is called Armagedon.

Armagedon. . .That is, the hill of robbers.

Apocalypse 22:10

22:10. And he saith to me: Seal not the words of the prophecy of this book. For the time is at hand.

For the time is at hand. . .That is, when compared to eternity, all time and temporal things vanish, and are but of short duration. As to the time when the chief predictions should come to pass, we have no certainty, as appears by the different opinions, both of the ancient fathers and late interpreters. Many think that most things set down from the 4th chapter to the end, will not be fulfilled till a little time before the end of the world. Others are of opinion, that a great part of them, and particularly the fall of the wicked Babylon, happened at the destruction of paganism, by the destruction of heathen Rome, and its persecuting heathen emperors. Of these interpretations, see Aleazar, in his long commentary; see the learned Bossnet, bishop of Meaux, in his treatise on this Book; and P. Alleman, in his notes on the same Apocalypse, tom. 12, who in his Preface says, that this, in a great measure, may be now looked upon as the opinion followed by the learned men. In fine, others think that St. John's design was in a mystical way, by metaphors and allegories, to represent the attempts and persecutions of the wicked against the servants of God, the punishments that should in a short time fall upon Babylon, that is, upon all the wicked in general: the eternal happiness and reward, which God had reserved for the pious inhabitants of Jerusalem, that is, for his faithful servants, after their short trials and the tribulations of this mortal life. In the mean time we meet with many profitable instructions and admonitions, which we may easily enough understand: but we have no certainty when we apply these predictions to particular events: for as St. Jerome takes notice, the Apocalypse has as many mysteries as words, or rather mysteries in every word. Apocalypsis Joannis tot habet Sacramenta quot verba--parum dixi, in verbis singulis multiplices latent intelligentiae. Ep. ad Paulin, t. 4. p. 574. Edit. Benedict.

Fourth Esdras

XIII 15 for the euiles which thou hast sene to haue chanced now, worse then these wil they doe againe: (Matt 24 / 1 John 2)

XV 14 Woe to the world and them that dwel therein. 15 Because the sword is at hand and the destruction of them, and nation shal rise vp against nation to fight, & sword in their handes. (Matt 24 / Luke 21)

XV 40 And there shal be exalted great and mightie cloudes ful of
wrath, and a starre to terrifie al the earth, and the inhabitantes
therof, and they shal powre in vpon euerie high, and eminent place a
terrible starre,

XV 43 And they shal passe constant vnto Babylon, and shal raise her. (Apoc 18) 44 They shal come together against her, and shal compasse her, and shal power out the starre, and al wrath vpon her, and the dust and smoke shal goe vp euen into heauen, and round about shal lament her.

This e-text comes from multiple editions of Challoner's revised Douay-Rheims Version of the Holy Bible. In 1568 English exiles, many from Oxford, established the English College of Douay (Douai/Doway), Flanders, under William (later Cardinal) Allen. In October, 1578, Gregory Martin began the work of preparing an English translation of the Bible for Catholic readers, the first such translation into Modern English.  Assisting were William Allen, Richard Bristow, Thomas Worthington, and William Reynolds who revised, criticized, and corrected Dr. Martin's work. The college published the New Testament at Rheims (Reims/Rhemes), France, in 1582 through John Fogny with a preface and explanatory notes, authored chiefly by Bristol, Allen, and Worthington. Later the Old Testament was published at Douay in two parts (1609 and 1610) by Laurence Kellam through the efforts of Dr. Worthington, then superior of the seminary. The translation had been prepared before the appearance of the New Testament, but the publication was delayed due to financial difficulties. The religious and scholarly adherence to the Latin Vulgate text led to the less elegant and idiomatic words and phrases often found in the translation. In some instances where no English word conveyed the full meaning of the Latin, a Latin word was Anglicized and its meaning defined in a glossary. Although ridiculed by critics, many of these words later found common usage in the English language. Spellings of proper names and the numbering of the Psalms are adopted from the Latin Vulgate.

In 1749 Dr. Richard Challoner began a major revision of the Douay and Rheims texts, the spellings and phrasing of which had become increasingly archaic in the almost two centuries since the translations were first produced. He modernized the diction and introduced a more fluid style, while faithfully maintaining the accuracy of Dr. Martin's texts. This revision became the 'de facto' standard text for English speaking Catholics until the twentieth century. It is still highly regarded by many for its style, although it is now rarely used for liturgical purposes. The notes included in this electronic edition are generally attributed to Bishop Challoner.

The 1610 printing of the second tome of the Old Testament includes an appendix containing the non-canonical books 'Prayer of Manasses,' 'Third Booke of Esdras,' and 'Fourth Booke of Esdras.' While not part of Challoner's revision, the 1610 texts are placed in the appendices of this e-text. Also included are the original texts of two short books, 'The Prophecie of Abdias' and 'The Catholike Epistle of Iude the Apostle,' to give the reader a sense of the language of the first editions in comparison to the Challoner revision. Further background on the Douay-Rheims version may be found in a selection from the preface to the 1582 edition and the original glossary included in the appendices.

74. Prophecy of Abdias (Obadiah)

It is a reprehension for what they had done, and at the same time a declaration that these things should not pass unpunished.
For the day of the Lord is at hand upon all nations: as thou hast
done, so shall it be done to thee: he will turn thy reward upon thy own head.

His prophecy is the shortest of any in number of words, but yields to none, says ST. JEROME, in the sublimity of mysteries. It contains but one chapter. (below)

"ABDIAS borne in Sichem, of the tribe Ephraim, prophecied the same time with Amos; so briefly that his prophecie is not parted into chapters: 1. against the Idumeans; foreshewing their destruction; 10. for their perpetual emnitie against the Iewes, and confederacie with the Chaldees. 17. The captiuitie and relaxation of the Iewes. 19. And redemption of the whole world by Christ." (Encyclopedia: Abdias

ABDIAS borne in Sichem, of the tribe Ephraim, prophecied the same time with Amos; so briefly that his prophecie is not parted into chapters: 1. against the Idumeans; foreshewing their destruction; 10. for their perpetual emnitie against the Iewes, and confederacie with the Chaldees. 17. The captiuitie and relaxation of the Iewes. 19. And redemption of the whole world by Christ.

THE vision of Abdias. Thus sayth our Lord God to Edom: We haue heard a bruit from our Lord, and he hath sent a legate to the Gentils: Rise ye, and let vs arise against him into battel.

2 Behold I haue geuen thee a litle one in the Gentils: thou art contemptible excedingly.

3 The pride of thy hart hath extolled thee, dwelling in the clefts of rockes, exalting thy throne: which sayst in thy hart: Who shal plucke me downe to the earth.

4 If thou shalt be exalted as an eagle, and if thou shalt set thy nest among the starres: thence wil I plucke thee downe, sayth our Lord.

5 If theues had gone in to thee, if robbers by night, how hadst thou held thy peace. would not they haue stolen thinges sufficent for themselues. if the grape gathereres had entered in to thee, would they not haue left thee at the least a cluster.

6 How haue they searched Esau, haue they sought out his hidden thinges.

7 Euen to the border haue they cast thee out: al the men of thy league haue mocked thee: the men of thy peace haue peuailed against thee: they that eate with thee, shal lay embushments vnder thee: there is no wisedom in him.

8 Why, shal not I in that day, sayth our Lord, destroy the wise out of Idumea, and prudence from the mount of Esau,

9 And thy valients of the South shal feare, that man may perish from the mount of Esau.

10 For the slaughter, and for the iniquitie against thy brother Iacob, confusion shal couer thee, and thou shalt perish for euer.

11 In the day when thou stoodest against him, when strangers tooke his armie, and foreners entered his gates, and vpon Ierusalem cast lotte: thou also wast as one of them.

12 And thou shalt not dispise in the day of thy brother, in the day of his peregrination: and thou shalt not reioyce ouer the children of Iuda, in the day of their perdition: & thou shalt not magnifie thy mouth in the day of distresse.

13 Neither shalt thou enter the gate of my people in the day of their ruine: neither shalt thou also dispise in his euils in the day of his distruction: and thou shalt not be sent out against his armie in the day of his destruction.

14 Neither shalt thou stand in the outgoings to kil them that flee: and thou shalt not shut vp his remnant in the day of tribulation.

15 Because the day of our Lord is at hand vpon al nations: as thou hast done, so shal it be done to thee: thy retribution he wil returne vpon thine owne head.

16 For as you haue drunke vpon my holie mount, shal al Gentils drinke continually: & they shal drinke, and swallow vp, and they shal be as though they were not.

17 And in mount Sion shal be saluation, and it shal be holie: and the house of Iacob shal possesse those that had possessed them.

18 And the house of Iacob shal be a fyre, and the house of Ioseph a flame, and the house of Esau stubble: and they shal be kindled in them, and shal deuoure them: and there shal be no remaynes of the house of Esau, because our Lord hath spoken.

19 And they that are toward the South, shal inherite the mount of Esau, and they in the champaine countries, Philisthiims: and they shal possesse the region of Ephraim, and the region of Samaria: and Beniamin shal possesse Galaad.

20 And the transmigration of this host of the children of Israel, al places of the Chananeits euen to Sarepta: and the transmigration of Ierusalem, that is in Bosphorus, shal possesse the cities of the South.

21 And sauiours shal ascend into mount Sion to iudge the mount of Esau: and the kingdom shal be to our Lord.


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