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End Times Chart

Introduction and Key


Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord's Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by
Todd Dennis, Curator







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070: Clement: First Epistle of Clement

075: Baruch: Apocalypse Of Baruch

075: Barnabus: Epistle of Barnabus

090: Esdras 2 / 4 Ezra

100: Odes of Solomon

150: Justin: Dialogue with Trypho

150: Melito: Homily of the Pascha

175: Irenaeus: Against Heresies

175: Clement of Alexandria: Stromata

198: Tertullian: Answer to the Jews

230: Origen: The Principles | Commentary on Matthew | Commentary on John | Against Celsus

248: Cyprian: Against the Jews

260: Victorinus: Commentary on the Apocalypse "Alcasar, a Spanish Jesuit, taking a hint from Victorinus, seems to have been the first (AD 1614) to have suggested that the Apocalyptic prophecies did not extend further than to the overthrow of Paganism by Constantine."

310: Peter of Alexandria

310: Eusebius: Divine Manifestation of our Lord

312: Eusebius: Proof of the Gospel

319: Athanasius: On the Incarnation

320: Eusebius: History of the Martyrs

325: Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History

345: Aphrahat: Demonstrations

367: Athanasius: The Festal Letters

370: Hegesippus: The Ruin of Jerusalem

386: Chrysostom: Matthew and Mark

387: Chrysostom: Against the Jews

408: Jerome: Commentary on Daniel

417: Augustine: On Pelagius

426: Augustine: The City of God

428: Augustine: Harmony

420: Cassian: Conferences

600: Veronica Legend

800: Aquinas: Eternity of the World




1265: Aquinas: Catena Aurea

1543: Luther: On the Jews

1555: Calvin: Harmony on Evangelists

1556: Jewel: Scripture

1586: Douay-Rheims Bible

1598: Jerusalem's Misery ; The dolefull destruction of faire Ierusalem by Tytus, the Sonne of Vaspasian

1603: Nero : A New Tragedy

1613: Carey: The Fair Queen of Jewry

1614: Alcasar: Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi

1654: Ussher: The Annals of the World

1658: Lightfoot: Commentary from Hebraica

1677: Crowne - The Destruction of Jerusalem

1764: Lardner: Fulfilment of our Saviour's Predictions

1776: Edwards: History of Redemption

1785: Churton: Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem

1801: Porteus: Our Lord's Prophecies

1802: Nisbett: The Coming of the Messiah

1805: Jortin: Remarks on Ecclesiastical History

1810: Clarke: Commentary On the Whole Bible

1816: Wilkins: Destruction of Jerusalem Related to Prophecies

1824: Galt: The Bachelor's Wife

1840: Smith: The Destruction of Jerusalem

1841: Currier: The Second Coming of Christ

1842: Bastow : A (Preterist) Bible Dictionary

1842: Stuart: Interpretation of Prophecy

1843: Lee: Dissertations on Eusebius

1845: Stuart: Commentary on Apocalypse

1849: Lee: Inquiry into Prophecy

1851: Lee: Visions of Daniel and St. John

1853: Newcombe: Observations on our Lord's Conduct as Divine Instructor

1854: Chamberlain: Restoration of Israel

1854: Fairbairn: The Typology of Scripture

1859: "Lee of Boston": Eschatology

1861: Maurice: Lectures on the Apocalypse

1863: Thomas Lewin : The Siege of Jerusalem

1865: Desprez: Daniel (Renounced Full Preterism)

1870: Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest

1871: Dale: Jewish Temple and Christian Church (PDF)

1879: Warren: The Parousia

1882: Farrar: The Early Days of Christianity

1883: Milton S. Terry: Biblical Hermeneutics

1888: Henty: For The Temple

1891: Farrar: Scenes in the days of Nero

1896: Lee : A Scholar of a Past Generation

1902: Church: Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem

1917: Morris: Christ's Second Coming Fulfilled

1985: Lee: Jerusalem; Rome; Revelation (PDF)

1987: Chilton: The Days of Vengeance

2001: Fowler: Jesus - The Better Everything

2006: M. Gwyn Morgan - AD69 - The Year of Four Emperors

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By Huchown of the Awle Ryale

Composed in the era of 1380-1390

George Nielsen: Huchown of the Awle Ryale: The Alliterative Poet (1902 PDF)


"It is possible, perhaps, that the story's final lines (1337-40) allude to this ultimate act in human history (the second coming of Christ), depicting a return to a home of two sorts: the physical city of Rome and the new spiritual home that Rome represents."

Whan alle was demed and don they drowen up tentis,
Trossen here tresour and trompen up the sege,
Wenten syngyng away and han here wille forthred,
And hom riden to Rome. Now rede ous oure Lord!
said and done; folded
Pack; trumpet; siege
have their will furthered
ride home; guide us may


And after sixty-two weeks Christ shall be slain: and the people that shall deny him shall not be his. And a people, with their leader, that shall come, shall destroy the city, and the sanctuary: and the end thereof shall be waste, and after the end of the war the appointed desolation. (Daniel 9:26)

For the days shall come upon thee: and thy enemies shall cast a trench about thee and compass thee round and straiten thee on every side . . . (Luke 19:43)1
Opinion #1: "it [Siege] mars the reputation of medieval chivalric literature; viewed another, it stains the good name of medieval piety. It seems ruined by rank anti-Semitism; since it transgresses ethically, it also must fail as literature. In short, its grossness is so palpable that it seems to merit the critical invisibility that has been its textual fate for most of its post-medieval existence." Roger Nicholson Opinion #2: "the marginalization of Siege of Jerusalem in this politically correct world says far more about us as readers, and our own difficulties in coping with such charged topics, than it does about medieval perspectives on the material in question." Michael Livingston

George Nielsen: Huchown of the Awle Ryale: The Alliterative Poet (1902 PDF) | J.M. Arvidson - The Language of Titus and Vespasian, or, The Destruction of Jerusalem (1916 PDF) 

"The poet appears to be suggesting that spiritual blindness and failure to stand up for the Christian faith is not to be tolerated. This is not the fault of the Jewish people, who merely follow their tyrannical leaders with misgiving, suffering greatly in the process. Although the poet is by no means in favour of Judaism, he can at least make a distinction among Jews, seeing some as victims and some as villains. Furthermore, the Jewish leaders are not the only evil characters in the poem; there are others such as Nero. Not all Romans are good, nor are all Jews wicked." Bonnie Millar

The siege of Jerusalem
Lines 1 through 100
Page  1
In Tiberyus tyme že trewe emperour
Sir Sesar hym sulf seysed in Rome
Whyle Pylat was prouost vnder žat prince riche
& Iewen iustice also in Judeus londis
Herodes vnder his emperie as heritage wolde
Kyng of Galile ycalled whan žat Crist deyed
Žey Sesar sakles wer žat oft synne hatide
Žrow Pylat pyned he was & put on že rode
A pyler pyȝt was doun vpon že playn erže
His body bonden žer to beten with scourgis
Whyppes of quyrboyle by-wente his white sides
Til he al on rede blode ran as rayn [i]n že strete
Suž stoked hym on a stole with styf Mannes hondis
Blyndfelled hym as a be & boffetis hym raȝte Page  2
Ȝif žou be prophete of pris prophecie žey sayde
Whiche [beryn] her aboute bolled že laste
A žrange žornen croune was žraste on his hed
Vmbe-casten hym with a cry & on a croys slowen
For al že harme žat he hadde hasted he noȝt
On hem že vyleny to venge žat his veynys brosten
Bot ay taried ouer že tyme ȝif žey tourne wolde
Ȝaf hem space žat hym spilide žey hit spedde lyte
Forty wynter as y fynde & no fewer ȝyrys
Or princes presed in hem žat hym to pyne wroȝt
Til hit tydde on a tyme žat Tytus of Rome
Žat alle Gascoyne gate & Gyan že noble
Whyle noye noyet hym in Neroes tyme
He hadde a malady vn-meke a-myd[dis] že face
Že lyppe lyž on a lumpe lyuered on že cheke
So a canker vnclene hit cloched to gedres
Also his fader of flesche is ferly bytide
A biker of waspen bees bredde on his nose Page  3
Hyued vpon his hed he hadde hem of ȝouže
And Waspasian was caled že waspene bees after
Was neuer syknes sorer žan žis sir žoled
For in a liter he lay laser at Rome
Out of Galace was gon to glade hym a stounde
For in žat cuže he was kyng žey he car žolede
Nas žer no leche vpon lyue žis lordes couž helpe
Ne no grace growyng to gayne her grym sores
Now was žer on N[a]than Neymes sone of Grec[e]
Žat souȝt oft ouer že se fram cyte to ožer
Knewe contreys fele kyngdomes manye
& was a marener myche & marchaunt bože
Sensceus out of Surye sent hym to Rome
To že athel Emperour an eraunde fram že Jewes
Caled Nero by name žat hym to noye wroȝt
Of his tribute to telle žat žey withtake wolde
Nathan toward Nero nome on his way
Ouer že Grekys grounde myd že grym yžes Page  4
An heye settež že sayl ouer že [salte] water
& with a dromound on že deep drof on faste
Že wolco[n] wanned anon & že water skewež
Cloudes clateren gon as žey cleue wolde
Že racke myd a rede wynde roos on že myddel
& sone sette on že se out of že souž syde
Blewe on že brode se bolned vp harde
Nathannys naue a-non on [že] norž dryuež
So že wedour & že wynd on že water metyn
Žat alle hurtled on an hepe žat že helm ȝemyd
Nathan flatte for ferde & ful vnder hacchys
Lete že wedour & že wynde worže as hit lyked
Že schip scher vpon schore schot froward Rome
Toward vncouž costes keuerež že yžes
Rapis vnradly vmbe ragged tourres
Že brode sail at o brayd to-brestež a twynne
Žat on ende of že sschip was ay toward heuen Page  5
Žat ožer doun in že deep as alle drenche wolde
Ouer wilde wawes he wende as alle walte scholde
St[a]rke stremes žrow yn stormes & wyndes
With mychel langour atte laste as our lord wolde
Alle was born at a by[rre] to Burdewes hauene
By žat wer bernes atte banke barouns & knyȝtes
& [citezeins] of že syȝt selcouž [hem] žoȝt
Žat euer barge ožer bot or berne vpon lyue
Vnpersched passed hadde že peryles wer so many
Žey token hym to Titus for he že tonge couže
& he [hem] fraynes how fer že flode hadde yferked
Sir out of Surre he seide y am come
To Nero sondis-man sent že [seygnour] of Rome
Ffram Sensceus his seriant with certayn leteres
Žat is iustise & iuge of Jewen lawe
Me wer leuer at žat londe le[ngede] žat y wer
Žan alle že gold ožer good žat euer god made
Že kyng in to conseyl callež hym sone Page  6
& saide Canste žou any cur or craft vpon erže
To softe že grete sore žat sittež on my cheke
& y schal že redly rewarde & to Rome sende
Nathan nyckes hym with nay sayde he non couže
Bot wer žou kyng in žat kužže žer žat Crist deyed
Žer is a worlich wif a womman ful clene
Žat haž softyng & salue for eche sore out
Telle me tyt quož Titus & že schal tyde better
What medecyn is most žat žat may vsež
Whežer gommes ožer graces or any goode drenches
Ožer chauntementes or charmes y charge že to say
Nay non of žo quož Nathan bot now wole y [telle]
Žer was a lede in our londe while he lif hadde
Preued for a prophete žrow preysed dedes
& born in Bethleem one by of a burde schene
Lines 101 through 200
& ȝo a mayde vnmarred žat neuer man touched
As clene as clef žer cristalle sprynges
Without hosebondes helpe saue že holy goste
A kyng & a knaue child ȝo conceyued at ere Page  7
A touche of že trinyte touched hir hadde
Žre persones in o place preued to gedres
Eche grayn is o god & o god bot alle
& alle žre ben bot one as eldres vs tellen
Že first is že fader žat fourmed was neuer
Že secunde is že sone of his sede growyn
Že žridde in heuen myd hem is že holy goste
Nežer merked ne made bot mene fram hem passyž
Alle ben žey endeles & euer of o myȝt
& weren endeles euer [er] že world was bygonne
As sone was že sone as že self fader
Že holy goste with hem hadde žey euer
Že secunde persone že sone sent was to erže
To take careynes kynde of a clene mayde
& so vnknowen he came caytifes to helpe
& wroȝt wondres ynowe ay tille he wo driede
Wyne he wroȝt of water at o word ene
Ten lasares at a logge he leched at enys
Pyned myd p[ar]il[sye] he putte to hele
& ded men fro že dež eche day rered
Croked & cancred he keuered hem alle Page  8
Bož že dombe & že deue myd his der wordes
Dide myracles mo žan y in mynde haue
Nis no clerk with countours couže aluendel rekene
Fyf žousand of folke is ferr to here
With two fisches he fedde & fif ber loues
Žat eche freke hadde his fulle & ȝit ferre leued
Of brede & of broken mete bascketes twelue
Žer suwed hym out of an cite [seuenty] & twey
To do what he dempte disciples wer hoten
Hem to citees he sende his sawes to preche
Ay by two & by two til hy wer a-twynne
Hym suwed of an-ožer cite semeliche twelue
Pore men & noȝt prute aposteles wer hoten
Žat of cay[ti]fes he ches holy churche to encresche
Že out-wale of žis worlde žis wer her names
Peter James & Jon & Jacob že ferže
& že fifže of his felawys Phelip was hoten
Že sixte Symond was caled & že seuež eke Page  9
Bertholomewe žat his bone neuer breke nolde
Že eyȝt man was Mathu žat is myche yloued
Tadde & Tomas her ben ten euen
& Andreu že elleuež žat auntred hym myche
Byfor princes to preche was Petrus brožer
Že laste man was vnlele & lužer of his dedis
Judas žat Jesu Crist to že Jewes solde
Suž hymsulf he slowe for sorow of žat dede
His body on a balwe tree to-breste on že myddel
Whan Crist hadde heried helle & was [to] heuen passed
For žat mansed man Mathie žey chossyn
Ȝit vnbaptized wer bože Barnabe & Poule
& noȝt knewen of Crist bot comen sone after
Že princes & že prelates aȝen že paske tyme
Alle žei hadde hym in hate for his holy werkes
Hit was a doylful dede whan žey his dež caste
Žrow Pilat pyned he was že prouost of Rome
& žat worliche wif žat arst was ynempned
Haž his visage in hir veil Veronyk ȝo hatte
Peynted priuely & playn žat no poynt wantež Page  10
For loue he left hit hir til hir lyues ende
Žer is no gome [o]n žis [grounde] žat is grym wounded
Meselry ne meschef ne man vpon erže
Žat knelež doun to žat clož & on Crist leuež
Bot alle hapnež to hele in [ane] hand whyle
At Rome reyned že emperour quož že kyng riche žan
Cesar synful wrecche žat sent hym fram Rome
Why nadde žy lycam be leyd low vnder erže
Whan Pilat prouost was made suche a prince to jugge
& or žis wordes wer [wel] wonne to že ende
Že canker žat že kyng hadde clenly was heled
With out faute že face of flesche & of hyde
As newe as že nebbe žat neuer was wemmyd
A corteys Crist seide že kyng riche žan
Was neuer worke žat y wroȝt woržy že to telle
Ne dede žat y haue don bot žy dež mened
Ne neuer sey že in siȝt goddis sone der
Bot now [be] bayne [to] my bone blessed lord Page  11
To stire Nero with noye & newen his sorowe
& y schal buske me boun hem bale to wyrche
To do že deueles of dawe & žy dež venge
Telle me tit quož Titus what tokne he lafte
To hem žat knew hym for Crist & his crafte leued
Nempne že trinyte by name quož Nathan at žries
& žer myd baptemed be in blessed water
Forž žey fetten a font & foulled hym žer
Made hym cristen kyng žat for Crist werred
Corrours in to eche coste žan že cours nomen
& alle his baronage broȝt to Burdewes hauen
Suž with že sondes-man he [s]ouȝt to Rome
Že ferly & že fair cure his fader to schewe
& he gronnand glad grete god žanked
& loude criande on Crist carped & saide
Woržy wemlese God in whom y byleue
[Als] žou in Bethleem was born of a bryȝt mayde
Sende me hele of my hurt & heyly y a-fowe
To be ded for žy dež bot hit be der ȝolden Page  12
Lines 201 through 300
Žat tyme peter was pope & preched in rome
Že lawe & že lore žat our byleue askež
Folowed faste on že folke & to že fayž tourned
& crist wroȝt for žat wye wondres ynow
Žer of waspasian was war žat že waspys hadde
Sone sendež hym to & že sože tolde
Of crist & že kerchef žat keuered že sike
As nathan neymes sone seide žat [was to nero] come
Žan to consayl was called že knyȝtes of rome
& assenteden sone to sende messages
Twenti knyȝtes wer cud že ker[ch]yf to fecche
& asked trewes of že emperour žat erand to done
Ac without tribute or trewes tenfulle wyes
Že knyȝtes with že kerchef comen ful blyue
Že pope ȝaf pardoun to hem žat passed žer aȝens
With processioun & pres princes & dukes
& whan že womman was war žat že wede owede
[of] seint peter že pope ȝo platte to že grounde
Vmbefelde his fete & to že freke saide
Of žis kerchef & my cors že kepyng y že take Page  13
Žan bygan že burne biterly to wepe
For že doylful dež of his der mayster
& longe stode in že stede or he stynte myȝt
Whan he vnclosed že clože žat cristes body touched
Že wede fram že womman [he] warpe atte laste
Receyued hit myd reuerence & rennande teris
Out of že place myd pres žey passed on swyže
& ay held hit on hey žat alle byhold myȝt
Žan twelf barouns bolde že emperour bade wende
& že pope departe fram že pople faste
Veronyk & že vail waspasian žey broȝt
& seint peter že pope presented bože
Bot a ferly byfelle forž myd hem alle
In her temple bytidde tenful žynges
Že mahound & že mametes tomortled to peces
& al tocrased as že clož žroȝ že kirke passed
Into že palice with že printe žan že pope ȝede
Knyȝtes kepten že clože & on knees fallen
A flauour flambež žer fro žey felleden hit alle Page  14
Was neuer odour ne eyr vpon erže swetter
Že kerchef clansed hit self & so cler wexed
Myȝt no lede on hit loke for liȝt žat hit schewed
As hit aproched to že prince he put vp his hed
For comfort of že clož he cried wel loude
Lo lordlynges her že lyknesse of crist
Of whom my botnyng y bidde for his bitter woundis
Žan was wepyng & wo & wryngyng of hondis
With loude dyn & dit for doil of hym one
Že pope availed že vaile & his visage touched
Že body suž al aboute blessed hit žrye
Že waspys wenten away & alle že wo after
Žat er lasar was longe lyȝtter was neuere
Žan was pypyng & play his pyne was awey
Žey ȝelden grace to god žis two grete lordes
Že kerchef ariež fram alle & in že eyr hangyž
Žat že symple myȝt hit se in to soper tyme
Že veronycle after veronyk waspasian hit called Page  15
Garde hit gayly agysen in gold & in seluere
Ȝit is že visage in že vail as veronyk hym broȝt
Že romaynes at rome a relyk hit holden
Žis whyle nero hadde noye & non nyȝtes reste
For his tribute was [tynt] as nathan told hadde
He commaundiž knyȝtes to come consail to holde
Erles & alle men že emperour aboute
Assembled že senatours sone vpon haste
To iugge who jewes myȝt best vpon že jewys take
& alle demeden by dome žo dukes to wende
Žat wer cured žrow crist žat žey on croys slowen
Žat on waspasian was of že wyes twey
Žat že trauail vndertoke & titus an ožer
A bold burne on a blonke & of his body comyn
No feržer sib to hymself bot his sone der
Crouned kynges bože & mychel crist loued
Žat hadde hem [g]euen of his grace & her grem stroyed Page  16
Moste žei hadde hit in hert her hestes to kepe
& her forwardis to fulfille žat žei byfor made
Žan was rotlyng in rome robbyng of brynnyes
Schewyng of scharpe [stele] scheldes ydressed
Lauȝte leue at žat lord leften his sygne
A grete dragoun of gold & alle že [g]yng folwed
By žat schippis wer schred yschot on že depe
Takled & atired on talterande yžes
Ffresch water & wyn wounden yn faste
& stof of alle maner store žat hem strengže scholde
Žer wer floynes a flot farcostes many
Cogges & crayers ycasteled alle
Galees of grete streyngže with golden fanes
[že brede] on že brod se aboute four myle
Žey tyȝten vp tal-sail whan že tide asked
Hadde byr at že bake & že bonke lefte
Souȝte ouer že se with soudeours manye
& [ioyned in to] port jaf in judeis londys Page  17
Suree cesaris londe žou may seken euer
Ful mychel wo m[o]n be wroȝte in žy [w]lonk tounes
Cytees vnder s[yon] now is ȝour sorow uppe
Že dež of že dereworž crist der schal be ȝolden
Now is bethleem žy bost ybroȝt to an ende
Jerusalem & ierico forjuggyd wrecchys
Schal neuer kyng of ȝour kynde with croune be ynoyntid
Ne jewe for jesu sake [i]ouke in ȝou more
Lines 301 through 400
Žey setten vpon eche side surrie withyn
Brente ay at že bak & [all] bar laften
Was noȝt bot roryng & r[u]th in alle že riche tounnes
& red laschyng lye alle že londe ouer
Token toun & tour teldes ful fele
Brosten ȝates of brass & many borwe wonnen
Holy že hežen here hewyn to grounde
Bož in bent & in borwe žat abide wolde
Že jewes to ierusalem ž[ere] josephus dwelde
Flowen as že foule dož žat faucoun wolde strike
A cite vnder syon sett was ful noble
With many toret & tour žat toun to defende Page  18
Princes & prelates & poreil of že londe
Clerkes & comens of contrees aboute
Wer schacked to žat cite sacrifice to make
At paske tyme as preched hem prestes of že lawe
Many swykel at že sweng to že swerd ȝede
For penyes passed non žoȝ he pay wolde
Bot diden alle to že deže & drowen hem after
With engynes to jerusalem žer jewes wer žykke
Žey sette sadly a sege že cite alle aboute
Piȝten pauelouns doun of pallen webbes
With ropis of riche silk raysen vp swyže
Grete tentis as a toun of torke[is] cložys
Choppyn ouer že cheuentayns with charboklis four
A gay egle of gold on a gilde appul
With grete dragouns grym alle in gold wroȝte
Lyk to lyouns also lyande žervnder
Paled & paynted že paueloun was vmbe
Stoked ful of storijs strayned myd armys
Of quaynte colour to know kerneld alofte
An hundred stondyng on stage in žat stede one Page  19
Toured with torettes was že tente žanne
Suž britaged aboute briȝt to byholde
Er alle že sege was sette ȝit of že cite comyn
Messengeres wer made fram maistres of že lawe
To že chef cheuentayn žey chosen her wey
Deden mekly by mouže her message attonys
Sayen že cite haž [vs] sent to serche ȝour wille
To here že cause of ȝour comyng [& what] ȝe coueyte wolde
Waspasian no word to že wyes schewed
Bot sendež sondismen aȝen twelf siker knyȝtes
[gert hem greithely] to go & že gomes telle
Žat alle že cause of her com[e] was crist forto venge
Sayž y bidde hem be boun bishopes & ožer
Tomorow or [mydday] [alle modur-nakyd]
Vp her ȝates to ȝelde with ȝerdes an hande
Eche whiȝt in a white scherte & no wede ellys
Jewyse for iesu crist by juggement to take
& make hem come žat iesu crist žroȝ conseil bytrayede Page  20
Or y to že walles schal wende & walten alle ouere
Schal no ston vpon ston stonde by y passe
Žis sondismen sadly to že cite ȝede
Žer že lordes of že londe lent weren alle
Tit tolden her tale & wonder towe made
Of crist & of cayphas & how žey come scholde
& when že knyȝtes of crist carpyn bygonn
Že jewes token alle twelf without tale mor
Her hondis bounden at her bak with borden stauys
And of flocken her fa[x] & her fair berdis
Made hem naked as a nedel to že nežer houe
Her visages blecken with bleche & al že body after
Suž knyt with a corde to eche knyȝtes swer
A chese & charged hem her chyuentayn to ber
Sayž vnbuxum we bež his biddyng to ȝete
Ne noȝt dreden his dom his dež haue we atled
He schal vs fynde in že felde ne no ferr seke
Tomorowe pryme or hit passe & so ȝour prince telliž
Že burnes busken out of burwe bounden alle twelf Page  21
Aȝen message to make fram že maister jewes
Was neuer waspasian so wrože as whan že wyes come
Žat wer scorned & schende vpon schame wyse
Žis knyȝtes byfor že kyng vpon knees fallen
& tolden že tale as hit tid hadde
Of žy manace ne žy myȝt žey make bot lyte
Žus ben we tourned of our tyre in tokne of že sože
& bounden for our bolde speche že batail žey willež
Tomorowe prime or hit passe žey put hit no ferre
Hit schal be satled on žy-self že same žat žou atlest
Žus han žey certifiet že [to saye] & sende že žis cheses
Wode wedande wrož waspasian was žanne
Layde wecche to že walle & warned in haste
Žat alle maner of men in že morowe scholde
Be sone after že sonne assembled in že felde
He streyȝt up a standard in a stour wyse
Bild as a belfray bretful of wepne
Whan oȝt fauted in že folke žat to že feld longed
Atte že belfray to be botnyng to fynde Page  22
A dragoun was dressed drawyn a lofte
Wyde gapande of gold gomes to swelwe
With arwes armed in že mouže & also he hadde
A fauch[ou]n vnder his feet with four kene bladdys
Žerof že poyntes wer piȝt in partyis four
Of žis wlonfulle wor[l]de žer žei werr fondyn
In forbesyn to že folke žis fauchoun hengež
Žat žey hadde wonnen with [werre] al že world riche
A bal of brennande gold že beste was on sette
His taille trayled žer aboute žat tourne scholde he neuere
Whan he was lifte vp[his liche] žer že lord werred
Bot ay lokande on že londe tille žat al lauȝte wer
Lines 401 through 500
Žer by že cite myȝt se no setlyng wolde rise
Ne no trete of no trewes bot že toun ȝelde
Or ride on že romayns for žey han her rede take
Žer britned to be or že [burghe] wynne
His wynges [brighte wer & brade] boun forto flee Page  23
With belles bordored aboute al of briȝt seluere
Redy whan ouȝte runnen to rynge ful loude
With eche [wap] of a [wynde] žat to že wynges sprongyn
Ibrytaged aboute že belfray was žanne
With a tenful tour žat ouer že toun gawged
Že b[est] by že briȝtnesse burnes myȝt knowe
Four myle žer fro so že feldes schonen
& on eche pomel wer pyȝt penseles hyȝe
Of selke & sendel with seluere ybetyn
Hit glitered as gled fur ful of gold riche
Ouer al že cite to se as že sonne bemys
Byfor že four ȝates he formes to lenge
Sixtene žousand by somme while že sege lastež
Sette ward [to] že walles žat noȝt awey scaped
Sixe žousand in sercle že cite alle aboute
Was noȝt while že nyȝt laste bot nehyng of stedis
Strogelyng in stele wede & stuffyng of helmes Page  24
With armyng of olyfauntes & ožer arwe bestes
Aȝen že cristen to come with castels on bake
Waspasya[n] in stele wede & his wyes alle
Weren diȝt forž by day & drowen to že vale
Of josophat žer jesu crist schal juggen alle žinges
Bigly batayled hym žer to bide[n] žis ožer
Že fauward titus toke to telle vpon ferste
With six žousand soudiours assyned for že nones
& mony in že mydward wer merked to lenge
Žer waspasian was with princes & dukes
& sixtene žousand in že žridde with a žryuande knyȝt
Sir sabyn of surrie a siker man of armes
Žat prince was of prouynce & michel peple ladde
Fourty hundred in helmes & harnays to schewe
& ten žousand atte tail at že tentis lafte
Hors & harnays fram harmyng to kepe
By žat bemys on že burwe blowen ful loude
& baners beden hem forž now blesse vs our lorde
Že jewes assembled wer sone & of že cite come
An hundred žousand on hors with hamberkes atired
Without folke vpon fot at že four ȝates
Žat preset to že place with pauyes on hande
Fyf & twenti olyfauntes defensable bestes
With brode castels on bak out of burwe come
& on eche olyfaunte armed men manye
Ay an hundred an hey an hundred withyn
Žo drowen dromedarius doun deuelich žicke
[an] hundred žousand & yheled with harnays of mayle
Eche beste with a big tour žer bold men wer ynne
Twenty told by tale in eche tour euene
Cameles closed in stele comen out žanne
Faste toward že feld a ferlich nonbr
Busked to batail & on bak hadde
Echon a toret of tre with ten men of armes
Chares ful of chosen charged with wepne
A wonder nonbr žer was who so wite lyste
Many douȝti žat day žat was adradde neuer Page  26
Wer fond fey in že feld er žat fiȝt endid
An olyfaunt yarmed came out at že laste
Keuered myd a castel was craftily ywroȝt
A tabernacle in že tour atyred was riche
Piȝt as a paueloun on pileres of seluere
A which of white seluere wal[w]ynde žer-ynne
On four goions of gold žat hit fram grounde bar
A c[h]osen chayr žerby on charbokeles twelfe
Betyn al with barn[d] gold with brennande sergis
Že chekes of že chayr wer cha[r]-bokles fyue
Couered myd a riche clože žer cayphas was sette
A plate of pulsched gold was piȝt on his breste
With many preciose perle & pured stones
Lered men of že lawe žat loude couže synge
With sawters seten hym by & že psalmys tolde
Of douȝty david že kyng & ožer der storijs
Of joseph že noble jewe & judas že knyȝt
Cayphas of že kyst kyppid a rolle
& radde how že folke ran žroȝ že re[d]e wa[ters]
Whan pharao & his ferde wer in že floode drouned
& myche of moyses lawe he mynned žat tyme
Whan žis faižles folke to že feld comen
& batayled after že bent with many burne kene
For baneres žat blased & bestes yarmed
Myȝt no man se žrow že sonne ne že cite knowe
Waspasian dyuysež že vale alle aboute
Žat was with baneres ouer[brade] to že borwe wallis
To barouns & bold men žat hym aboute wer
Seiž lordlynges aloude lestenyž my speche
Her nys king nožer knyȝt comen to žis place
Baroun ne burges ne burne žat me folwež
Žat že cause of his come nys crist forto venge
Vpon že faižles folke žat hym fayntly slowen
Byholdež že hežyng & že harde woundes
Že betyng & že byndyng žat že body hadde
Lat neuer žis lawles ledis lauȝ at his harmys
Žat bouȝt vs fram bale with blod of his herte Page  28
[i] quyckeclayme že querels of alle quyk burnes
& clayme of euereche kyng saue of crist one
Žat žis peple to pyne no pite ne hadde
Žat preuež his passioun who so že paas redež
Lines 501 through 600
Hit nediž noȝt at žis note of nero to mynde
Ne to trete of no trewe for tribute žat he askež
Žat querel y quikcleyme [qwežer] he ne wilnež
Of žis rebel to rome bot resoun to haue
Bot mor žing in our mynde mynež [vs] today
Žat by resoun to rome že regnance fallyž
Bože že myȝt & že mayn [&] mais[trie] on e[rže]
& lord[chipe] of eche londe žat liže vnder heuen
Lat neuer žis faižles folke with fiȝt vs wynne
Hors ne harnays bot žey hit hard byen
Plate ne pesan ne pendauntes ende
While any lyme may laste or we že lif haue
For žei ben feyn[t] at že fiȝt fals of byleue
& wel wenen at a wap alle že wo[r]ld quelle Page  29
Nožer grounded on god ne on no grace tristen
Bot alle in st[erynne]s of stour & in strengž one
& we ben diȝt today driȝten to serue
Hey heuen kyng [take] hede to his owne
Že ledes louten hym alle & aloude sayde
Today žat fleže any fote že fende haue his soule
Bemes blowen anon blonkes to neȝeȝ
Stedis stampen in že felde stif steil vnder
Stiže men in stiropys striden alofte
Knyȝtes croysen hemself cacchen her helmys
With loude clarioun cry & alle kyn pypys
Tymbris & tabourris tonelande loude
Ȝeuen a schillande schout schrynken že jewes
As womman [welter solde in swounn] whan hir že water neȝež
Lacchen launces anon lepyn to-gedris Page  30
As fur out of flynt ston ferde hem bytwene
Doust drof vpon lofte dymedyn alle aboute
As žonder & žicke rayn žrowolande in skyes
[žei] beren burnes žrow brosten launces
Knyȝtes crosschen doun to že cold erže
Ffouȝt faste in že felde & ay že fals vnder
Doun swowande [one] swelt with out swar more
Tytus tournež hym to tolles of že beste
Forjustes že jolieste with joyn[yng] of werr
Suž with a briȝt bronde he betiž on harde
Tille že brayn & že blod on že bent ornen
Souȝt žroȝ an ožer side with a sore wepne
Bet on že broun stele while že bladde laste
An hey breydež že brond & as a bore lokež
How hetterly doun hente who so wolde
Alle briȝtned že bent as bemys of sonne
Of že gilden ger & že goode stones Page  31
Ffor schyueryng of sche[l]des & schynyng of helmes
Hit ferde as alle že firmament vpon a fur wer
Waspasian in že vale že fanward by-holdež
How že hežyn her heldiž to grounde
Cam with a fair ferde že fals men to mete
As greued griffouns girden in samen
Spakly her speres on sprotes žay ȝeden
Scheldes as schidwod on scholdres tocleuen
Schoken out of schepes žat scharpe w[ere] ygrounde
& mallen metel žroȝ vnmylt hertes
Hewen on že hežen hurtlen togedr
Forschorne gilt schroud sch[o]dered burne[s]
Baches woxen ablode aboute in že vale
& goutes fram gold wede as goteres žey runne
Sir sabyn settež hym vp whan hit so ȝede
Ridež myd že rereward & alle že route folwež Page  32
Kenely že castels came to assayle
Žat že bestes on her bake out of burwe ladden
Atles on že olyfauntes žat orible wer
Girdiž out že guttes with grounden speres
R[o]ppis rispen forž žat redles an hundred
Scholde be busy to burie žat on a bent lafte
Castels clateren doun cameles brosten
Dromedaries to že dež drowen ful swyže
Že blode fomed hem fro in že flasches aboute
Ž[at] knedepe in že dale dascheden stedes
Že burnes in že bretages žat aboue wer
For že doust & že dyn as alle doun ȝede
Al forstoppette in stele storteblynde wexen
Whan hurdiȝs & hard erže hurtled togedre
& vnder dromedaries doun diȝten hem sone
Was non left vpon lyue žat a lofte standež
Saue [ane] olepy olyfaunt at že grete ȝate
Žeras cayphas že clerke in castel ridež Page  33
He say že wrake on hem wende & away tournež
With twelf maystres made of moyses lawe
An hundred helmed men hien hem after
Er žey of castel myȝt come cauȝten hem alle
Bounden že bischup on bycchyd wyse
Žat že blode out barst eche band vnder
& broȝten [to] že [berfraye] alle [žo] bew clerkes
Žer že standard stode & stadded hem žer
Že beste & že britage & alle že briȝt ger
Chair & chaundelers & charbokel stones
Že rolles žat žey redden [on] & alle že riche bokes
Žey broȝte myd že bischup žou hym bale žouȝte
Anon že feyžles folke fayleden herte
Tourned toward že toun & tytus hem after
Ffe[l]de of že fals ferde in že felde lefte
An hundred in her helmes myd his honde one
Že fals jewes in že felde fallen so žicke
As hail froward heuen hepe ouer ožer Page  34
So was že bent ouerbrad blody byrunne
With ded bodies aboute alle že brod vale
Lines 601 through 700
Myȝt no stede doun stap bot on stele wede
Or on burne ožer on beste or on briȝt scheldes
So myche was že multitude žat on že molde lafte
Žer so many wer mar[red] mereuail wer ellis
Ȝit wer že romayns as rest as žey fram rome come
[vnrevyn] eche a renk & noȝt a ryng brosten
Was no poynt perschid of alle her pris armur
So crist his knyȝtes gan kepe tille complyn tyme
An hundred žousand helmes of že hežen syde
Wer fey fallen in že felde [žat no freke skapide]
Saue seuen žousand of že somme žat to že cite flowen
& wy[nn]en with mychel wo že walles with-ynne
Ledes lepen to a-non louken že ȝates
Barren hem bigly with boltes of yren
Brayden vp brigges with brouden chaynes Page  35
& portecolis with pile picchen to grounde
Žei wynnen vp whyȝtly že walles to kepe
Fr[e]sche vnfonded folke & grete defence made
Tyež in-to tourres tonnes ful manye
With grete stones of gret & of gray marble
Kepten kenly with caste že kernels alofte
Quar[r]en qu[a]rels out with quart[ote]s attonys
Žat ožer folke at že fote freshly assayled
Tille eche dale with dewe was donked aboute
With-drowen hem fro že diche dukes & ožer
[for] že caste was so kene žat come fram že walles
Comen forže with že kyng clene as žey ȝede
W[ant]ed noȝt o wye ne non žat wem hadde
Princes to her pauelouns passen on swyže
Vnarmen hem as tyt & alle že nyȝt resten
With wacche vmbe že walles to many wyes sorowe
Žey wolle noȝt že hežen her so harmeles be lafte Page  36
Sone as že rede day ros [o]n že schye
Bemes blowen anon burnes to aryse
Že kyng comaundež a cry žat comsed was sone
Že ded bodies on že bonke barforto make
To spoyle že spilt folke spar scholde none
Geten girdeles & ger gold & goode stones
Byes broches bryȝt besauntes riche
Helmes hewen of gold hamberkes manye
Kesten ded vpon ded was deil to byholde
Made wide weyes & to že walles comen
Assembleden at že cite saut to bygynne
Ffolke ferlich žycke at že four ȝates
Žey broȝten toures of tre žat žey taken hadde
A-ȝen euereche ȝate ȝarken hem hey
By-gonnnen at že grettist a garrite to rer
Groded vp fro že grounde on twelfe grete postes
[it] was wonderlich wide wroȝt vpon hyȝte Page  37
Ffyue hundred in frounte to fiȝten at že walles
Hardy men vp-on haste hyen at že grecys
& bygonnnen with bir že borow to assayle
Quarels flambande of fur flowen out harde
& arwes [vn]arwely with attyr enuenymyd
Taysen at že toures tachen on že jewes
Žroȝ kernels cacchen her dež many kene burnes
Brenten & beten doun žat bilde was wel žycke
Brosten že britages & že brode toures
By žat was many bold burne že burwe to assayle
Že hole batail boun a-boute že brode walles
Žat wer byg & brode & bycchet to wynne
Wonder heye to byholde with holwe diches vnder
Heye bonked a-bou[t]e vpon bože sydes
Riȝt wicked to wynne bot ȝif wyles helpe
Bow-men atte bonke benden her ger
Schoten vp scharply to že schene walles
With arwes & arblastes & alle žat harme myȝt
To affray že folke žat defence made Page  38
Že jewes werien že walles with wyles ynowe
Hote [p]l[ay]ande picche a-monge že peple ȝeten
Brenn[a]n[d] leed & brynston barels fulle
Schoten schynande doun riȝt as schyr water
Waspasian wendež fram že walles wariande hem alle
Ožer busked wer boun benden engynes
Kesten at že kernels & clustred toures
& monye der daies worke dongen to grounde
By žat wriȝtes han wroȝt a wonder stronge pale
Alle aboute že burwe with bastiles manye
Žat [no freke in myȝt fonde with-owttyn fethyrhames]
[ne] no segge vnder sonne myȝt fram že cite passe
Suž dommyn že diches with že ded corses
Crammen hit myd karayn že kirnels vnder
Žat že stynk of že steem myȝt strike ouer že walles
To cože že corsed folke žat hem kepe scholde Page  39
Že cors of že condit žat comen to [že] toun
Stoppen euereche a streem žer any str[ande] ȝede
With stockes & stones & stynkande bestes
Žat žey no water myȝt wynne žat weren enclosed
Waspasian tournež to his tente with titus & ožer
Commaundež consail anon on cayphas to sitte
W[hat] dež by dome žat he dey scholde
With že lettered ledes žat žey lauȝte hadde
Domes-men vpon de[y]s demeden swyže
Žat ech freke wer quyk fleyn že felles of clene
Žen to be on a bent with blonkes to-drawe
& suž honget on an hep vpon heye galwes
Že feet to že firmament alle folke to byholden
With hony vpon ech [halfe] že hydeles anoynted
Corres & cattes with claures ful scharpe
Ffour kagge[d] & knyt to cayphases žeyes
Lines 701 through 800
Twey apys at his armes to angren hym mor Page  40
Žat renten že rawe flesche vpon rede peces
So was he pyned fram prime with persched sides
Tille že sonne doun souȝt in sommere-tyme
Že lered men of že lawe a litel bynyže
Weren tourmented on a tre topsail walten
Knyt to euerech clerke kene corres twey
Žat alle že cite myȝt se že sorow žat žey dryuen
Že jewes walten ouer že walles for wo at žat tyme
Seuen hundred slow hem-self for sorow of her clerkes
Somme hent her heer & fram že hed pulled
& somme [down] for deil dasch[e]de to grounde
Že kyng lete drawen hem a-doun whan žey dede wer
Bade a bole-fur betyn to brennen že corses
Kesten cayphas žer-yn & his clerkes twelf
& brenten euereche bon in-to že browne askes
Suž went to že walle on že wynde syde
& alle a-brod on že burwe blewen že powder Page  41
Žer is doust [to] ȝour drynke a du[ke] to hem criež
& bade hem bible of žat brož for že bischopes soule
Žus ended coursed cayphas & his clerkes alle
Al to-brused myd bestes brent at že laste
In tokne of tresoun & trey žat he wroȝt
Whan crist žrow his conseil was cacched to dež
By žat was že day don dym[m]ed že skyes
Merked [že] montayns & mores a-boute
Foules fallen to fote & her fežres r[y]s[t]en
Že nyȝt-wacche to že walle & waytes to blowe
Bryȝt fures a-boute betyn a-brode in že oste
Že kyng & his consail carpen to-gedr
Chosen chyuentayns out & chiden no mor
Bot charged že chek-wecche & to chambr wenten
Kynges & knyȝtes to cacchen hem reste
Waspasian lyž in his logge litel he slepiž
Bot walwyž & wyndiž & waltrež a-boute Page  42
Ofte tournež for tene & on že toun žynkež
Whan schadewes & schir day scheden attwynne
Leuerockes vpon lofte lyften her steuenes
Burnes busken hem out of bedde with bemes loude
Bože blowyng on bent & on že burwe walles
Waspasian bounys of bedde busked hym fayr
Fram že fote to že fourche in fyne gold cložes
Suž puttež že prince ouer his pal[l]e[n] wedes
A brynye browded žicke with a brest-plate
[že] gra[te was] of gray steel & of gold riche
Žer-ouer he castež a cote colour[ede] of his armys
A grete girdel of gold with-out ger ožer
Layž vmbe his lendis with lacchetes ynow
A bryȝt burnesched swerd he beltež alofte Page  43
Of pur purged gold že pomel & že hulte
A brod schynande scheld on scholdir he hongiž
Bocklyd myd briȝt gold abou[t]e at že necke
Že glowes of gray steel žat wer with gold hemmyd
Haulež [ouer] harnays & his hors askež
Že gold hewen helme haspež he blyue
With viser & with a-vental deuysed for že nones
A croune of clene gold was closed vpon lofte
Rybaunde vmbe že rounde helm ful of riche stones
Pyȝt prudely with perles in-to že pur corners
& so with saphyres sett že sydes a-boute
He stridež on a stif stede & strikež ouer že bente
Liȝt as a lyoun wer loused out of cheyne
His segges se[y]en hym alle & echon sayž to ožer
Žis is a comlich kyng knyȝtes to lede
He bowež to že barres or he bide wolde
Betynge on with že brond on že bras rynges Page  44
Comež caytifes forž ȝe žat crist slowen
Knowež hym for ȝour kyng or ȝe cacche mor
Waytež doun fro že walle what wo is on hande
May ȝe fecche ȝou no fode žoȝ ȝe fey worže
& žoȝ ȝe waterles wede wynne ȝe noȝt o droppe
Žoȝ ȝe dež scholde dey daies in ȝour lyue
Že pale žat i piȝt haue passe hit who myȝt
Žat is so byg on že bonke & haž že burowe closed
Ffourty to fyȝten aȝens fyue hundred
Žoȝ ȝe wer etnes echon in scholde [ȝ]e [tourne]
& more manschyp wer hit ȝit mercy by-seche
Žan metles marr žer no myȝt helpys
Was non žat warpiž a word bot waytes her poyntes
Ȝif [any] stertis on st[r]ay with stones hem to kylle
Žan wrož as a wode bore he wendež his bridul
Ȝif ȝe as dogges wol dey že deuel haue žat recche
& or i wende fro žis walle ȝe schul wordes schewe Page  45
& efte spakloker speke or y ȝour speche owene
By žat a jewe josophus že gentyl clerke
Hadde wroȝt a wonder wyle whan hem water fayled
Made wedes of wolle in wete for to plunge
Water-waschen as žey wer & on že walle hengen
Že wedes dropeden doun d[r]yed ȝerne
Rich rises hem fro že romayns byholden
Wenden wel her wedes hadde wasschyng so ryue
Žat no wye in že wone water schold fayle
Waspasian že wile wel ynow knewe
Loude lawȝ[ež] žer-at & lordlynges byddis
No burne abasched be žoȝ žey žis bost make
Hit bež bot wyles of werr for water hem faylež
Žan was no-žyng bot a newe note to bygynne
Assaylen on eche a side že cite by halues
Merken myd manglouns ful vn-mete dyntes Page  46
& myche of masouns note žey marden žat tyme
Lines 801 through 900
Žer-of was josophus war žat myche of werr couže
& sette on že walle side sakkes myd chaf
Aȝens že streyngže of že stroke žer že stones hytte
Žat alle dered noȝt a dyȝs bot grete dy[n] made
Že romayns runne to a-non & on roddes knytte
Sižes for že sackes žat selly wer kene
Raȝten to že ropis rent hem in sonder
Žat alle dasschande doun in-to že diche flatten
Bot josophus že gynful her engynes alle
Brente with brennande oyle & myche bale wroȝt
Waspasian wounded was žer wonderlich sore
Žrow že hard of že hele with an hande-darte
Žat boot žrow že bote & že bone nayled
Of že frytted fote in že folis syde
Sone assembled hym to many sadde hundred Page  47
Žat wolden wrecken že wounde ožer wo habben
Žey bowyn to že barres bekered ȝerne
Fouȝt riȝt felly foyned with speres
Jo[k]ken jewes žroȝ engynes by žanne
Wer manye bent at že bonke & to že burwe žrewen
Žer wer selcoužes sen as segges mowe here
A burne with a balwe-ston was že brayn cloue
Že gretter pese of že panne že pyble forž strikež
Žat hit flow in-to že feld a forlong or more
A womman bounden with a barn was on že body hytte
With že ston o[f] a staf[-slyng] as že storyj tellež
Žat že barn out brayde fram že body clene
& was born vp as a bal ouer že burwe walles
Burnes wer brayned & brosed to dež
Wymmen wide open walte vnder stones
Frosletes fro že ferst to že flor žrylled Page  48
& many toret doun tilte že temple a-boute
Že cite had ben seised myd saut at žat tyme
Nad že folke be so fers žat že fende serued
Žat kilden on že cristen & kepten že walles
With arwes & arblastes & archers manye
With speres & spryngoldes sponnen out hard
Dryuen dartes a-doun ȝeuen depe woundes
Žat manye renke out of rome [by] rest[ing] of ž[e] s[o]nne
Was mychel leuer a leche žan layke myd his ton
Waspasian styntež of že stour stewež his burnes
Žat wer for-beten & bled vnder bryȝt yren
Tyen to her tentis myd tene žat žey hadde
Al wery of žat werk & wounded ful sore
Helmes & hamberkes hadden of sone
Leches by torche-liȝt loken her hurtes
Waschen woundes with wyn & with wolle stoppen
With oyle & orisoun ordeyned in charme Page  49
Suž euereche a segge to že soper ȝede
Žoȝ žey wounded wer was no wo nempned
Bot daunsyng & no deil with dynnyng of pipis
& že nakerer noyse alle že nyȝt-tyme
Whan že derk was doun & že day spr[o]ngen
Sone after že sonne sembled že grete
Comen forž-with že kyng conseil to her
Alle že knyȝthod clene žat for crist werred
Waspasian waitež a-wide his wyes byholdež
Žat wer frescher to fiȝt žan at že furst tyme
Prayež princes on ernest & alle že peple after
Žat eche wye of žat werr schold his wille specke
For or žis toun be tak & žis toures heye
Michel tor[fere] & tene vs tides on hande
Žay tourned alle to titus & hym že tale schewež
Of že cite & že sege to seyn for hem alle
Žan titus tournež hem to & talkyng bygynnež Page  50
Žus to layke with žis les[e folke] vs lympis že worse
For žey ben fel[l]e of defence ferce men & noble
& žis toured toun is tenful to wynne
Že worst wrecche in že wone may on walle lygge
Strike doun with a ston & stuny many knyȝtes
Whan we schul houe & byholde & litel harme wirche
& ay že lože of že layk liȝt on vs-selue
Now mowe žey ferke no ferr her fode forto wynne
Wolde we stynt of our strif whyle žey her stor ma[r]-den
We scholde with [hunger] hem honte to hoke out of toun
[with-owttyn weme or wounde or any wo ells]
For žer as faylež že fode žer is feynt strengže
& žer as hunger is hote hertes ben feble
Alle assenteden to že sawe žat to že [sege] longed
Apaied as že prince & že peple wolde Page  51
To že kyng wer called constables žanne
Marchals maser[s] men žat he to tristiž
He chargež hem che[f]ly for chaunce žat may falle
With wacche of waled men že walles to kepe
For we wol hunten at že hart žis hežes aboute
& hur racches renne a-monge žis rowe bonkes
Ride to že reuer & rer vp že foules
Se faucouns fle fole of že beste
Ech segge to že solas žat hym-self lyked
Princes out of pauelouns presen on stedes
Torn[ei]en trifflyn & on že toun wayten
Žis lyf žey ledde longe & [lord] ȝyue vs grace
In rome nero haž now mychel noye wroȝt
To dež pyned že pope & mychel peple quelled
Petr apostlen prince & seint poule [also] Page  52
Senek & že senatours & alle že cite fured
His modir & his my[l]de wif murdred to deže
Combred cristen fele žat on crist leued
Že romayns resen a-non whan žey ž[i]s rewže seyen
To quelle že emperour quyk žat hem vnquemed hadde
Lines 901 through 1100 (lines 998-1097 missing)
Žey pressed to his paleys porayle & ožer
To br[it]ten že bold kyng in his burwe riche
Že cite & že senatours assented hem bože
Non ožer dede was to doun žey han his dome ȝolden
Žan flowe žat freke frendles alone
Out at a pore posterne & alle že peple folwed
With a tronchoun of tre toke he no more
Of alle že glowande gold žat he on grounde hadde
On žat tronchoun with his tež he toggež & bytež
Tille hit was piked at že poynt as a pokes ende
Žan abidež žat burne & biterlych spekež
To alle že wyes žat žer wer wordes aloude
Tournež traytours aȝen schal neuer že tale rise Page  53
Of no karl by že coppe how he his kyng quelde
Hym-self he strykež myd žat staf streȝt to že hert
Žat že colke to-clef & že kyng deyed
Six monže after & no mor žis myschef bytydde
Žat waspasian was went to werry on že jewes
Four mettyn myle out of rome to mynde for euere
Žat erst was emperour of alle žus ended in sorow
Že grete to-gedres žan [gete] hem an-ožer
On gabba a gome žat mychel grem hadde
Žroȝ othis l[ucy]us a lord žat hym longe hated
& at že last žat lord out of lyf hym broȝt
Amydde že market of rome že[y] mette to-gedres
Othis falliž hym fey ȝaf hym fale woundes
Žat four monžes & [no] mor hadde mayntened že croune
& žo deyed že duke & že diademe lefte
& whan žat gabba was gon & to grounde broȝt
Othis entriž on ernest & emperour was made Page  54
Že man in his maieste was monžes bot žre
Žan he ȝeldež sathanas že soule & hym-self quelled
Že romayns risen vp a renk rome for to kepe
A knyȝt žat vitel was calde & hym že croune rauȝte
Bot for sir sabyns sake a segge žat was noble
Waspasian brožer of blode [žat] he brytned hadde
Waspasian vpon vitel to vengen his brožer
S[en]t out of surrie segges to rome
Žat [a]s naked as an nedul že newe emperour
For sir sabyns sake alle že cite drowe hym
Suž gored že gome žat his guttes alle
As a bowe[l]ed beste in-to his breche felle
Doun ȝer[m]ande he ȝede & ȝeldež že soule
& [žey] kayȝt že cors & kast in-to tybre
Seuen monžes žis [segge] hadde septre on hande
& žus loste he že lyf for his lužer dedes
An ožer segge was to seke žat septre schold haue Page  55
For alle žis grete ben gon & neuer agayn tournen
Now of že cite & of že sege wolle y sey mor
How žis comelich kyng žat for crist werrež
Haž holden yn že hežen men žis ožer half wynter
Žat neuer burne was so bold že burwe for to passe
As he to dyner on a day with dukes was sette
Comen renkes fram rome rapande swyže
In bruneys & in bryȝt wede with bodeworde newe
Louten alle to že lord letres hym rauȝten
Sayn comelich kyng že knyȝthod of rome
Žroȝ že senatours assent & alle že cite ellis
Han chosen že her chyuentayn her chef lord to worže
And riche emperour of rome žus redež žis letres
Že lord vnlappež že lef žis letres byholdež
Ouer-lokež ech a lyne to že last ende
Bordes born wer doun & že burne risež
Callež consail a-non & kyžež žis speche Page  56
Ȝe ben burnes of my blod žat y best wolde
My sone is next to my-self & ožer sib manye
Sir sabyn of surrie a segge žat y triste
& ožer frendes fele žat me fayž owen
Now is me bodeword of blys broȝt froward rome
To be lord ouer žat lond as žis letres spekež
Sir sabyn of surrie sey že by-houyž
How y myȝt sauy my-self & i so wroȝt
Ffor y haue heylych heyȝt her forto lenge
[tille] me že ȝates ben ȝet & ȝolden že keyes
[and] i žis toured [t]oun ha[ue] taken at wille
& suž houshed on hem žat žis hold kepyn
Brosten & betyn doun žis britages heye
Žat neuer ston in žat stede stond vpon ožer
Kyže ž[i] consail sir knyȝt žis kyng to hym sayde
For y wol worche by žy witt ȝif worschip may folowe Page  57
Žan seiž sir sabyn a-non semelich lord
We ben wyes že with žy worschup to furžer
Of longe tyme bylafte & ledes žyn owen
Žat we doun is žy dede may no man demen elles
Že dom demed was žer who so dož by anožer
Schal be soferayn hym-self sein in že werke
For as fers is že freke atte ferr ende
Žat of fleis že fel as he žat foot holdež
Bytake tytus žy sone žis toun for to kepe
& to že douȝti duke domyssian his brožer
Her i holde vp myn honde myd hem for to lenge
With alle že here žat i haue while my herte lastež
& žou schalt ride to rome & receyue že croune
In honour emperour to be as žyn eure schapiž
So may žy couenaunt be kept žat žou to crist made
Žy-self dest žat žy soudiours by žyn assent worchen
Žan with a liouns lote he lifte vp že eyen *. [ Lines 998-1097 are missing ]Page  64
To voiden alle by vile dež žat vitelys destruyed
Wymmen & weyke folke žat weren of olde age
Myȝt noȝt stonde in stede bot her stor mardyn
Lines 1101 through 1200
After [žay] touche of trewe to trete with že lord
Bot Titus grauntež noȝt for gile žat že gomes ženke
For he is wise žat is war or hym wo hape
& with falsede a-fer is fairest to dele
To worchyn vnder že wal w[a]yes žey casten
Whan Tytus nold no trewe to že toun graunte
With mynours & masouns myne žey bygonne
Grobben faste [i]n že grounde & god ȝyue vs joye
As Tytus after [on] a tyme vmbe že toun r[i]dež
Wyž sixty speres of že sege segges a fewe Page  65
Alle outwith že ost out of a kaue
Vp a buschment brake alle of briȝt hedis
Fyf hundred fiȝtyng men fellen hem aboute
In jepouns & jambers Jewes žey wer
Hadde wroȝt hem a wey & že wal myned
& Titus tournež hem to without tale mor
Schaftes schedred wer sone & scheldes yžrelled
[And many schalke thurghe schotte with že scharpe ende]
Brunyes & briȝt wede blody by-runne
& many segge at žat saute souȝte to že grounde
Hacchen vpon hard steel with an herty wylle
Žat fur out flowe as of flynt stonys
Of že helm & že hed hewen at-tonys
Že stompe vnder stede feet in že steel leuež
Že ȝong duk Domycian of že dyn herde
And issed out of že ost with eȝte hundred speres Page  66
Ffel on že fals folke vmbe-feldes hem sone
As bestes bretnes hem alle & haž his brožer holpen
Žan Titus toward his tentis tournež hym sone
Makež mynour[s] & men že myne to stoppe
After profrež pes for pyte žat he hadde
Whan he wist of her wo žat wer withyn stoken
Bot Jon že jenfulle žat že Jewes ladde
An ožer Symond of his assent forsoke že profre
Sayn leuer in žis lif lengen hem wer
Žan any renke out of Rome [re]joycid her sorowe
Sale in že cite was cesed with žanne
Was noȝt for besauntes to bye žat men bite myȝt
For a feržyng-worž of fode floryns an hundred
Princes profren in že toun to pay in že fuste
Bot alle was boteles bale f[or] who so bred hadde
Nold a goet haue [g]ouen for goode vpon [erž]e
Wymmen falwed faste & her face chaungen Page  67
Ffeynte & fallen doun žat so fair wer
S[ome] swallen as swyn som swart wexen
Som lene on to loke as la[n]terne-hornes
Že morayne was so myche žat no man couže telle
Wher to burie in že burwe že bodies žat wer ded
Bot wenten with hem to že walle & walten [hem o]uere
In-to že depe of že diche že ded doun fallen
Whan Titus told was že tale to trewe god he vouched
Žat [he] hadde profred hem pes & grete pite hadde
Žo praied he Josophus to preche že peple [to en-forme]
[For] to saue hemself & že cite ȝelde
Bot Jon forsoke že sawe so for to wyrche
With Symond žat ožer segge žat že cyte ladde
Myche peple for že prechyng at že posterne ȝatis
Tyen out of že toun & Tytus bysechež Page  68
To for[g]yue hem že gult žat žey to god wroȝt
& he grauntež hem grace & gaylers bytauȝt
Bot whan žey metten with mete vnmyȝty žey wer
Any fode to defye so faynt was her strengže
Fful že gottes of gold eche gome hadde
Lest fomen fongen hem schold her floreyns žey eten
Whan hit was broȝt vp abrode & že bourd aspyed
[Wižou]ten leue of žat lord ledes hem slowen
[G]oren euereche a gome & že gold taken
Ffayn[ere] of že floreyns [žan of] že frekes alle
Ay wer že ȝates vn[ȝ]et tille two ȝeres ende
So longe žey [s]ouȝt hit by sege or žey že [cite] hadde
Eleuen hundred žousand Jewes in že mene whyle
Swalten while že sweng last by swerd & by hunger
Now Titus conseil haž take že toun to assayle
To wynne hit on eche [wise] of warwolues handes Page  69
Neuer pyte ne pees profre hem more
Ne gome žat he gete may to no grace taken
[žei] armen hem as tyt alle for že werr
Tyen euen to že toun with trompis & pypys
With nakerers & grete noyce neȝen že walles
Žer many styf man & stour stondiž alofte
Sir Sabyn of Surrye on a syde ȝede
Že ȝong duke Domycian drow to an ožer
XV žousand [fiȝtynge] men eche freke hadde
With many maner of engyne & mynours ynowe
Tytus at že toun ȝate with ten žousand helmes
Merkež mynour[s] at že wal wher žey myne scholde
On ech side for že assaute settež engynes
& bold-brayned men in belfrayes heye
Was noȝt bot dyn & dyt as alle deye scholde
So eche lyuande lyf layež on ožer Page  70
At eche kernel was cry & quasschyng of wepne
& many burne atte brayd brayned to dež
Sir Sabyn of Surrye whyle že saute laste
Leyž a ladder to že wal & alofte clymyž
Wendež wyȝtly žeron žoȝ hym wo happned
& vp stondiž for ston[es] or for steel gere
Syx he slow on že wal sir Sabyn alone
Že seuež hittež on hym an vnhende dynte
Žat že brayn out brast at bož nose-žrylles
& Sabyn ded of že dynt in-to že diche fallež
Lines 1201 through 1300
Žan Tytus wepyž for wo & wariež že tyme
Syž he že lede haž lost žat he loue scholde
Ffor now is a duke ded že douȝtiest y trowe
Žat euer stede bystrode or any steel wered
Tytus on že same side settež an engyne
A sowe wroȝt for že werr & to že wal dryuež Page  71
Žat alle ouerwalte žer he went & wyes an hundred
Wer ded of žat dynt & in že diche lyȝten
Žan Tytus heuež vp že honde & heuen kyng žonkež
Žat žey že dukes dež han so der bouȝte
Page  25
Že Jewes praien že pees žis was že paske-euene
& že comelich kyng že keyes out rauȝten
Nay traytours quož Tytus now take hem ȝourselfen
Ffor schal no ward on ȝour wal vs že way lette
We han geten vs a gate a[g]en ȝour wille
Žat schal be satled sour on ȝour sory kynde
Or že ȝates wer ȝolden žre ȝer byfore
Ouer že cyte wer seyn selcouže žynges
A bryȝt bren[n]yng swerd ouer že burwe henged
Without hond ožer helpe saue [of] heuen one
Armed men in že ayer vpon ost-wyse
Ouer že cyte wer seyn sundrede tymes Page  72
A calf aȝen kynde calued in že temple
& eued an ewe-lombe at [že] offryng-tyme
A wye on že wal cried wonder heye
Voys fram est & fram west & fram že four wyndis
& sayd Wo wo wo worž on ȝou bože
Jerusalem že Jewen toun & že joly temple
Ȝif sayž že wye on že walle o word mor
Wo to žis worldly wone & wo to my-selue
& deyd whan he don hadde žrow dynt of [a] slynge
& haplich was had away how wyst I neuere
& žan žey deuysed hem & vengaunce hit helde
& wyten her wo že wronge žat žey wroȝte
Whan žey brutned in že burwe že byschup seint Jame
Noȝt wolde acounte hit for Crist že car žat žey hadde
Bot vp ȝeden her ȝates [žey] ȝelden hem alle
Without brunee & briȝt wede in her bar chertes Page  73
fram none tille že merke nyȝt neuer ne cesed
Bot man after man mercy bysouȝt
Tytus into že toun takež his way
Myȝt no man st[e]ken [i]n že stret for stynke of ded corses
Že peple in že pauyment was pite to byholde
Žat we enfamy[n]ed for defaute whan hem fode wanted
Was noȝt on ladies lafte bot že lene bones
Žat wer fleschy byfor & fayr on to loke
Burges with balies as barels or žat tyme
No gretter žan a grehounde to grype on že medil
Tytus tariež noȝt for žat bot to že temple wendiž
Žat was rayled že roof with rebies grete
With perles & peritotes alle že place ferde
As glowande gledfur žat on gold st[r]ikež
Že dores ful of dyemauntes dryuen wer žicke
& made merueylous lye with margeri perles Page  74
Derst no candel be [ky]nde whan clerkes scholde rise
So wer žey lemaunde lyȝt & as a lampe schonen
Že Romayns wayten on že werke warien že tyme
Žat euer so precious a place scholde persche for her synne
Out že tresour to take Tytus commaundyž
Doun bete že bilde brenne hit in-to grounde
Žer was plente in že place of precious stonys
Grete gaddes of gold who-so grype lyste
Platis pecis of peys pulsched vessel
Bassynes of brend gold & ožer bryȝt ger
Pelours masly made of metals fele
In cop[r]e craftly cast & in clene seluere
Peynted [with] pur gold alle že place was ouer
Že Romayns renten hem doun & to Rome ledyn
Whan žey že cyte han souȝt vpon že same wyse Page  75
Telle couže no tonge že tresours žat žei žer foundn
Jewels for joly men je[mewes] riche
Ffloreyns of [fyne] gold no freke wanted
Riche pelour & pane princes to wer
Besantes bies of gold broches & rynges
Clene cložes of selke many carte-fulle
Wele wantež no wye bot wale[ž] what hym lykež
Now masouns & mynours han že molde souȝte
With pykeyse & ponsone persched že walles
Hewen žrow hard ston hadde hem to grounde
Žat alle derkned že diche for doust of že pouder
So žey wrouȝten at že wal alle že woke-tyme
Tille alle že cyte was serched & souȝt al aboute
Maden wast at [a] wappe žer že walle stode
Bože in temple & in tour alle že toun ouer
Nas no ston in že stede stondande alofte
Morter ne m[o]de walle bot alle to mulle fallen Page  76
Nožer tymbr ne tre temple ne ožer
Bot doun betyn & brent into blake erže
& whan že temple was ouertourned Tytus commaundys
In plowes to putte & alle že place erye
Suž sow hit with salt & seide žis wordes
Now is žis stalwourže stede distroied for euere
Tytus suž sett hym on a sete riche
As juge Jewes to jugge justise hym-self
Criour[s] callen hem forž as hy žat Crist slowen
& beden Pilat apere žat prouost was žanne
Pilat proffriž hym forž apered at že bar
& he fraynež že freke alle with fair wordis
Whan Crist of dawe was don & to že dež ȝede
Of že he[ž]yng žat he hadde & že hard woundis
Lines 1301 through 1334
Žan melys že man & že matere tolde
How alle že ded was don whan he dež žoled Page  77
For žritty penyes in a poke his postel hym solde
So was he bargayned & bouȝt & as a beste quelled
Now corsed be he quož že kyng žat že cate made
He wexe marchaunte amys žat že money fenged
To sille so precyous a prince for penyes so fewe
[Thoghe ilke a ferthynge had bene ful florence an hundrethe]
Bot I schal marchaundise make in mynde of žat ožer
Žat schal be hežyng to hem or I hennes passe
Alle žat here bodyes wol by or bargaynes make
By lower pris for to passe žan žey že prophete solde
He made in myddel of [že] ost a market to crye
Alle žat cheffare wolde chepe chepis to haue
Ay for a peny of pris who-so pay wolde
Žrytty Jewes in a žrom žrongen in ropis
So wer žey bargayned & bouȝt & broȝt out of londe
Neuer suž [on] žat syde cam segge of hem after
Ne non žat leued in her lawe scholde in žat londe dwelle Page  78
Žat tormented trewe God žus Titus commaundyž
Josophus že gentile clerke a-jorneyd was to Rome
Žer of žis mater & mo he made fayr bokes
& Pilat to prisoun was do to pyne for euere
At Viterbe žer he veniaunce & vile dež žoled
Že wye žat hym warded wente on a tyme
Hym-self fedyng with frut & feffyt hym with a per
& forto paren his pere he praiež hym ȝerne
Of a knyf & že kempe kest hym a trenchour
& with že same he schef hymself to že herte
& so že kaytif as his kynde corsedlich deied
Whan alle was demed & d[on]e žei drow vp tentis
Trossen her tresour & trompen vp že sege
Wenten syngyng away & han her wille foržred
& hom riden to Rome Now rede ous our lord



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