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Josephus: Henry Leeming: Josephus' Jewish War and Its Slavonic Version: A Synoptic Comparison (2003) "This volume presents in English translation the Slavonic version of Josephus Flavius' "Jewish War, long inaccessible to Anglophone readers, according to N.A. Materskej's scholarly edition, together with his erudite and wide-ranging study of literary, historical and philological aspects of the work, a textological apparatus and commentary. The synoptic layout of the Slavonic and Greek versions in parallel columns enables the reader to compare their content in detail. It will be seen that the divergences are far more extensive than those indicated hitherto."

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Jewish Apocalyptic Writings:
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Pesher Nahum
Dead Sea Scroll 4Q169

Nahum Commentary - 4Q169

"Kittim" As Romans


Where the lion went, a lion's cub to come there [with none to disturb] (
Nahum 2:11)

[Its pesher refers to Deme]trius king of Greece who sought to enter Jerusalem on the counsel of the seekers-of-smooth-things. [And he did not enter, for God did not give Jerusalem] into the hand of the kings of Greece, from Antiochus until the appearance of the rulers of the Kittim. And afterwards the city shall be trampled

"Ephraim" As Jerusalem


Woe to the city of blood, all full of [treachery and plunder] (
Nahum 3:1)

Its pesher refers to the city of Ephraim, the seekers-of-smooth-things for the Afterwards of Days, who walk in treachery and deceit.



Ronald L. Troxel
"Also similar to what we witnessed in the Pesher on Habakkuk is the mention of the "congregation of traitors" who have strayed from the path under the influence of one who "spread lies."  As in the Pesher, the group affected by the liar is designated as "the last generation," but also as Israel, whom the "scoffer" has led astray.

The description of this group as "seeking easy interpretations" - literally, "they inquired about smooth things" [dareshu bechalaqoth] - is significant, because this language appears frequently in another of the Pesharim, the Pesher on Nahum.  For instance, column 2 of that work contains commentary on Nahum 3.1, which is cited first:  "'Alas, the bloody city, all of it [treachery,] stuffed with loot!'  Its interpretation:  it is the city of Ephraim, those looking for easy interpretations [doreshey hachalaqoth] in the final days, since they walk in treachery and lies." (4Q169 fragments 3-4, 2.1-2)  As in the Damascus Document the wicked are those seeking "smooth things" or "easy interpretations."  Notice, also, that their behavior is also characterized as "walking in treachery and lies."

Just a few lines later, following another condemnation of those "looking for easy interpretations," we find a comment on Nahum 3.4, which is cited first:  "'On account of the many fornications of the prostitute, full of elegance and mistress of enchantment, who misleads nations with her sorceries.  [Its] interpretation concerns those who misdirect Ephraim, who with their fraudulent teaching and lying tongue and perfidious lip misdirect many." (4Q169 fragments 3-4, 2.7-8)  Once again the notion of those who mislead others with lies surfaces." (source: MMT)

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Date: 02 Jul 2013
Time: 08:51:02

Your Comments:

It’s quite probable that the words in the second square brackets should be not ‘and he didn’t enter, for God did not give Jerusalem’ but ‘for Jerusalem more than once found itself’ (in the hands of the kings of Greece from Antiochus up to appearance of the rulers of Kittim, and afterwards it shall be trampled…). These words would agree with those in line 1 of the same column, ‘residence for the wicked of the nations’, meaning Jerusalem.
Antiochus in the commentary is Antiochus III the Great, of course, because he was the first Seleucid king to annex Judea. It is this king exactly whom a considerable part of Dan 11 is devoted to (11:10-19). And his action is described in a similar manner as Demetrius’ in the commentary: ‘He shall also set his face to enter (Jerusalem) with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do…’ (11:17, KJV).
Sergei E. Rysev

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